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Table 1 Socio-demographics and diseases in relation to HPV prevalence.

From: The distribution of sexually-transmitted Human Papillomaviruses in HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa

   Prevalence of HPV, %
Characteristic Number (%) Any HPV P value HR HPV P value LR HPV P value
Total 70(100) 65.4   50.0   22.9  
HIV Status        
HIV+ 30(45) 80.0 0.05 70.0 0.05 26.7 0.2
HIV- 40(55) 55.0   35.0   20.0  
Age in years        
15–22 30(42) 45.0 0.001 33.3 0.001 13.3 0.025
23–30 27(45) 64.0   59.3   33.3  
31–38 8(12) 78.0   75.0   12.5  
Tribal Identity        
Bemba 25(37.9) 60.0 0.001 48.0 0.001 20.0 0.001
Kaonde 2(3.0) 50.0   50.0   0.0  
Lozi 4(6.1) 100.0   75.0   50.0  
Luvale 1(1.5) 0.0   0.0   0.0  
Nyanja 24(36.4) 45.8   37.5   16.7  
Tonga 10(15.1) 80.0   70.0   30.0  
Marital Status        
Married 57(90.5) 63.2 0.001 50.9 0.001 24.6 1.0
Single 4(6.3) 50.0   50.0   0.0  
Live-in partner 2(3.2) 50.0   50.0   0.0  
Education Status        
1–7 years 35(54.7) 68.6 0.2 57.1 0.2 22.9 0.001
8–12 years 25(39.1) 56.0   44.0   20.0  
>12 years 4(6.2) 25.0   25.0   25.0  
Age of Sexual Debut        
≤ 15 19(28.8) 57.9 1.0 42.1 1.0 21.1 1
16–17 18(27.3) 61.1   44.4   27.8  
18–19 13(19.7) 76.9   69.2   23.1  
≥ 20 16(24.2) 43.8   43.8   12.5  
Frequency Of Sex        
Daily 1(1.5) 100.0 0.001 100.0 0.001 0.0 0.001
Once per week 6(9.2) 83.3   66.7   33.3  
Few per week 53(81.6) 69.8   58.5   24.5  
Few per month 2(3.1) 50.0   0.0   50.0  
Few per year 3(4.6) 33.3   33.3   0.0  
No Contraceptive ever used        
Yes 34(51.5) 58.8 1.0 47.1 1.0 17.6 1
No 32(48.5) 59.4   50.0   25.0  
Use of Condom with Stable Partner        
Always 1(1.5) 100.0 0.001 0.0 0.001 100.0 0.001
Frequently 4(6.1) 50.0   25.0   75.0  
Occasionally 14(21.2) 57.1   50.0   21.4  
Never 47(71.2) 59.6   51.1   14.9  
Presence of Traditional Scarification        
Present 17(25.8) 70.6 0.001 64.7 0.001 17.6 0.1
Absent 49(74.2) 53.1   40.8   22.4  
Hematinics        
Yes 42(62.7) 52.4 0.025 42.9 0.025 19.0 0.1
No 25(37.3) 68.0   56.0   24.0  
History of Antibiotic Use        
Yes 36(55.4) 61.1 1.0 50.0 1.0 22.2 1
No 29(48.5) 55.2   70.0   20.7  
  1. The total number of various characteristics are indicated in response to the study questions (Numbers (%)). The prevalence of HPV (Any HPV) varies significantly across categories (P < 0.05, χ2 test). The prevalence of low-risk HPV (LR HPV) varied significantly across categories (P < 0.05, χ2 test). The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR HPV) also varied significantly across categories (P < 0.05, χ2 test).