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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections (URI) among Pennsylvania Medicaid fee-for-service recipients, June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2000, by Age Group*

From: Concurrent acute illness and comorbid conditions poorly predict antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections: a cross-sectional analysis

  Odds Ratios for Antibiotic Use
  Age 0 – 5 years Age 6 – 21 years Age 22 – 44 years Age ≥ 45 years
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Any concurrent acute illness 4.63 4.29–5.00 2.83 2.58–3.10 1.84 1.68–2.02 1.73 1.51–2.00
   Acute Sinusitis 3.70 2.71–5.04 2.80 2.33–3.36 1.90 1.68–2.17 2.17 1.75–2.68
   Bacteremia 2.11 0.50–8.88 -- -- 0.21 0.02–1.90 -- --
   Cellulitis 1.41 0.63–3.15 1.38 0.61–3.14 2.19 1.11–4.33 0.90 0.44–1.84
   Chronic Sinusitis 4.01 2.69–5.97 2.98 2.29–3.88 2.02 1.62–2.51 1.94 1.39–2.73
   Otitis media 4.56 4.20–4.95 2.88 2.53–3.28 1.60 1.34–1.91 1.70 1.21–2.41
   Pneumonia 1.71 1.27–2.29 1.93 1.28–2.92 1.18 0.84–1.64 0.96 0.68–1.35
   Strep pharyngitis 3.12 2.10–4.63 1.61 1.26–2.06 1.39 0.95–2.05 0.76 0.31–1.84
   Urinary tract infection 4.31 0.45–41.62 3.02 1.00–9.14 2.95 1.17–7.45 0.73 0.31–1.73
History of chronic conditions§ 1.47 0.96–2.27 1.06 0.75–1.51 1.10 0.93–1.29 1.11 0.97–1.28
URI Diagnosis         
   Influenza 1 Reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
   Common cold 1.64 1.20–2.25 1.27 0.96–1.67 1.42 1.07–1.88 1.07 0.75–1.53
   Acute bronchitis 4.83 3.63–6.42 5.84 4.75–7.24 4.28 3.52–5.20 3.83 3.07–4.78
   Other sites or not specified 1.74 1.32–2.30 2.46 2.00–3.02 2.54 2.09–3.08 2.17 1.73–2.71
  1. CI denotes confidence interval.
  2. --denotes OR cannot be calculated since there were no episodes of bacteremia.
  3. *Adjusted for gender, race, physician specialty and season of URI. The probability of receiving an antibiotic at a visit was the dependent variable.
  4. §Chronic conditions include chronic bronchitis, immunodeficiency including HIV/AIDS, solid organ transplant or malignancy.