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Table 2 Corynebacterium endocarditis: risk factors and outcomes by Corynebacterium species.

From: Corynebacteriumendocarditis species-specific risk factors and outcomes

Species & references Number of cases†
(% total)
Mean age
(years)
Male n
(%)
Left sided Endocarditis
n (%)
Previous prosthetic valve
n (%)
Previous valvular disease§
n (%)
Nosocomial risk factors||
n (%)
Required valve replacement
n (%)
Survived
n(%)
Non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae 5, 20, 22, 24–26, 27, 32, 46, 48–52, 54, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 78, 94 60 (46.5%) 56 ± 13.8
p = 0.012
45 (75%) 58 (95.1%) 8 (13.3%) 17 (28.3%) 1 (1.7%)
p = 0.017
17 (28.3%) 39 (65%)
p = 0.060
C. pseudo-diphtheriticum 18, 20, 36–38, 40, 42–45, 81, 83 18 (14.0%) 45 ± 21.32 17 (93.8%)
p = 0.023
18 (100%) 8 (44.4%)
p = 0.004
6 (33.3%) 0 (0%) 6 (37.5%) 6 (33.3%)
p = 0.032
Toxigenic C. diphtheriae 23, 27, 29, 49, 64, 66 14 (10.9%) 17.5 ± 16.5
p < 0.001
8 (57.1%) 12 (85.7%) 1 (7.1%) 2 (14.3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
*p = 0.014
2 (14.3%)
p = 0.001
C. striatum 6, 7, 9–15, 53, 56, 62 14 (10.9%) 61.3 ± 13.9
p = 0.018
7 (50%) 12 (85.7%) 3 (21.4%) 4 (28.6%) 5 (35.7%)
p < 0.001
4 (28.6%) 11 (78.6%)
p = 0.074
C. jeikeium 6, 16, 19, 25, 34, 35, 69, 79, 93 13 (10.1%) 57.2 ± 13.6
p = 0.024
10 (76.9%) 12 (92.3%) 5 (38.5%)
p = 0.064
6 (42.6%) 3 (23.1%)
p = 0.028
7 (53.8%)
p = 0.026
10 (76.9%)
C. xerosis 59, 75, 82, 95 4 (3.1%) 51.2 ± 12.3 3 (75%) 4 (100%) 0 (0%) 2 (50%) 0 (0%) 2 (50%) 2 (50%)
C. hemolyticum 77, 80 2 (1.6%) 68.5 ± 26.1 2 (100%) 2 (100%) 0 (0%) 1 (50%) 1 (50%)
p = 0.024
0 (0%) 0 (0%)
C. minutissimum 86, 91 2 (1.6%) 35.5 ± 6.3 1 (50%) 2 (100%) 0 (0%) 1 (50%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (100%)
C amycolatum 6, 60 2 (1.6%) 81 ± 9.8 0 (0%)
p = 0.024
2 (100%) 0 (0%) 1 (50%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (50%)
Total 129 (100%) 35.7 ± 22.9 93 (72.1%) 123 (94.6%) 25 (19.3%) 40 (31.0%) 10 (7.7%) 36 (27.9%) 73 (56.6%)
  1. *Data derived from References 2–97 (specific citations listed in by-species citations, column 1). All p values are compared to the mean.
  2. † Percentages of the total number of cases (within column 2). Note: All other percentages represent values for each Corynebacterium species (percentage within each row).
  3. ‡ Left sided endocarditis: Aortic or mitral valve endocarditis.
  4. §Previous valvular disease other than valve replacement.
  5. || Nosocomial risk factors: presence of an intravascular access device, dialysis fistula, pacemaker, or presence of a prosthetic device other than a valve