Skip to main content

Table 2 Univariate analyses on risk factors for cervicitis (C trachomatis and/or N gonorrhoeae) among 703 antenatal care attendees in Gaborone, Botswana

From: Chlamydia and gonorrhoea in pregnant Batswana women: time to discard the syndromic approach?

  No. Women with cervicitis Odds ratio Confidence interval p-value
   No. (%)   (95%)  
Sociodemographic factors       
Age groups       
   < 20 76 17 (22) 9.1 3.4–24.1 0.000
   20–29 432 44 (10) 3.6 1.5–8.5 0.004
   30+ 195 6 (3) 1   
Education       
   Primary school or less 168 17 (10) 1   
   Junior secondary school 310 36 (12) 1.2 0.6–2.2 0.620
   Senior secondary or higher 225 14 (6) 0.6 0.3–1.2 0.160
Marital status       
   Married 114 2 (2) 1   
   Unmarried 589 65 (11) 6.9 1.7–28.7 0.008
Partners last 12 months       
   One partner 671 64 (10) 1   
   Two or more 32 3 (9) 1.0 0.3–3.3 0.976
Time in relationship       
   One year or less 118 19 (16) 2.5 1.4–4.6 0.003
   1 to 2 years 137 16 (12) 1.7 0.9–3.2 0.094
   >2 years 448 32 (7) 1   
Subjective symptoms       
Vaginal discharge       
   No 584 55 (9) 1   
   Yes 119 12 (10) 1.1 0.6–2.1 0.822
Lower abdominal pain       
   No 650 63 (10) 1   
   Yes 53 4 (8) 0.8 0.3–2.2 0.610
Thinks she has an infection       
   No 638 58 (9) 1   
   Yes 65 9 (14) 1.6 0.8–3.4 0.217
Clinical signs       
Vaginal discharge       
   Negative 476 37 (8) 1   
   Positive 227 30 (11) 1.8 1.1–3.0 0.023
Candida-like discharge       
   Negative 622 61 (10) 1   
   Positive 81 5 (6) 0.6 0.2–1.5 0.279
Moderate or profuse discharge       
   Negative 447 34 (8) 1   
   Positive 256 33 (13) 1.8 1.1–3.0 0.023
Yellow discharge       
   Negative 438 38 (9) 1   
   Positive 265 29 (11) 1.3 0.8–2.2 0.322
Thin/runny discharge       
   Negative 615 48 (8) 1   
   Positive 88 19 (22) 3.3 1.8–5.9 0.000
Foamy discharge       
   Negative 590    1   
   Positive 113 19 (17) 2.3 1.3–4.1 0.005
Smelly discharge       
   Negative 659 58 (9) 1   
   Positive 44 9 (21) 2.7 1.2–5.8 0.014
Cervical bleeding/erythroplaquia       
   Negative 520 45 (9) 1   
   Positive 183 22 (12) 1.4 0.8–2.5 0.184
Laboratory analyses       
Urine stix (nitritis/leucocytes)       
   Negative 609 59 (10) 1   
   Positive 94 8 (9) 0.9 0.4–1.9 0.718
WBC in cervical smear       
   None/few 124 5 (4) 1   
   1+ 267 22 (8) 2.1 0.8–5.8 0.135
   2+ 171 18 (11) 2.8 1.0–7.8 0.048
   3–4+ 140 22 (16) 4.4 1.6–12.1 0.004
Candida (microscopy or culture)       
   Negative 287 26 (9) 1   
   Positive 416 41 (10) 1.1 0.7–1.8 0.724
Trichomoniasis       
   Negative 571 41 (7) 1   
   Positive 132 26 (20) 3.2 1.9–5.4 0.000
Bacterial vaginosis (BV)       
   Negative 435 40 (9) 1   
   Positive 268 27 (10) 1.1 0.7–1.9 0.700