Wavelet analyses of epidemiological time series for the five countries and Indian Oscillation Index (IOI): (A) Côte d'Ivoire, (B) Benin, (C) Ghana, (D) Nigeria, (E) Togo and (F) IOI. Prior to wavelet analyses, incidence data were square-root-transformed in order to dampen extremes in variability. In addition, all the time series were normalized. For each time series: (i) the left panel illustrates incidence time series (square root transformed) and climatic index time series; (ii) the middle panel shows the wavelet power spectrum for the different series (xaxis: time in year; yaxis: period in year). The power is coded from low values, in white, to high values, in black. The black dashed lines show the α = 5% significance level computed on 1,000 bootstrapped series. The inside area within the cone of influence (black line) indicates the region not influenced by edge effects. (iii) The right panel corresponds to the global wavelet spectrum (black line) with its significant threshold value of 5% (dashed line).