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Table 4 Risk factors for high-titer (≥ 1:800) and low-titer (≥ 1:100 and <1:800) seropositivity to L. interrogans serovar Pomona. Significant variables in the multinomial logistic regression model and corresponding relative risk ratios (RRR) are shown.a

From: Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species?

    High titer seropositivity vs seronegativity Low titer seropositivity vs seronegativity
Variable Value Nb RRR 95% CI p-value RRR 95% CI p-value
Age Yearling 450 (383) 1    1   
  Juvenilec 220 (99) 4.41 (2.80,6.95) <0.001 5.99 (1.5,23.9) 0.011
  Subadult 331 (195) 3.79 (2.54,5.67) <0.001 23.8 (6.85,82.6) <0.001
  Adult 293 (241) 0.79 (0.49,1.27) 0.32 43.6 (12.9,147.4) <0.001
Sex Female 565 (456) 1    1   
  Male 729 (462) 4.13 (2.89,5.89) <0.001 8.29 (4.62,14.9) <0.001
Season Jan-Jul 629 (549) 1    1   
  Aug-Dec 665 (369) 4.87 (3.53,6.72) <0.001 1.15 (0.68,1.92) 0.60
Outbreak year No 859 (710) 1    1   
  Yes 435 (208) 6.97 (5.02,9.68) <0.001 1.35 (0.76,2.39) 0.31
  1. a Model had residual deviance 1483.3 on 1287 df (chi-squared p = 1; Nagelkerke R 2 = 0.51).
  2. b Sample size in each group is shown as a total number and as a number excluding leptospirosis-induced strands (in parentheses).
  3. c Note that the juvenile age class contains only males.