Specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza A virus from archived human and avian samples. A. A panel of archived avian and human subtypes (H1 to H16) of Influenza A virus was tested against the H5N1 primers. Viral RNA were extracted from H1 (lane 5, A/Duck/Victoria/23/81); H2 (lane 6, A/Singapore/1/57); H3 (lane 7, A/Sydney/5/97); H4 (lane 8, A/Stint/Australia/1/2004); H5 (lane 9, A/Avian/L2640C); H6 (lane 10, A/Avian/WA/2727/78); H7 (lane 11, A/Chicken/Victoria/85); H8 (lane 12, A/Turkey/Ontario/6118/67); H9 (lane 13, A/Chicken/Malacca/4905/2003); H10 (lane 14, A/Chicken/Germany/n/49); H11 (lane 15, A/Sandpiper/Australia/6/2004); H12 (lane 16, A/Stint/WA/574/84); H14 (lane 17, A/Mallard/Gurjev/244/82); H15 (lane 18, A/Avian/WA/1762/78); H16 (lane 19, A/Gull/Denmark/68110/62). Two human archived RNA samples, Human 279 (lane 3, A/Hong Kong/279/2003) and Human 3028 (lane 4, A/Vietnam/3028/2004) were tested positive. Positive H5N1 RNA sample from in vitro-transcribed single-stranded RNA was used (lane 2), and the non-template control (water) is shown. B. The same set of RNA samples were tested against the matrix gene. The 978 bp fragment was detected in all samples (lanes 22 to 36) as shown.