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Table 1 Comparative concentrations of bacteria on blood, endotoxins (LPS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) of groups of treatment. Therapy was administered 1.5 hours after bacterial challenge.

From: Clarithromycin is an effective immunomodulator when administered late in experimental pyelonephritis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Time (hours) after bacterial challenge A (controls) B (clarithromycin) C (amikacin) D (clarithromycin + amikacin)
  Bacteria in blood (Mean ± SE, log10 cfu/ml)
1.5 1.72 ± 0.31 2.53 ± 0.61 1.92 ± 0.23 2.00 ± 0.75
3.5 1.95 ± 0.26 2.05 ± 0.36 2.22 ± 0.36 1.20 ± 0.20
24 3.35 ± 1.23 4.91 ± 0.99 6.24 ± 0.76 3.72 ± 0.89
48 5.93 ± 1.06 5.94 ± 1.06 5.23 ± 1.77 5.13 ± 0.93
  LPS (Mean ± SE, EU/ml)
1.5 10.79 ± 7.28 4.53 ± 1.94 10.15 ± 6.87 5.88 ± 2.68
3.5 1.17 ± 0.54 6.25 ± 2.94a 10.02 ± 6.72 3.92 ± 0.73
24 7.35 ± 2.02 11.09 ± 4.87 9.88 ± 3.72 36.22 ± 5.52
48 21.86 ± 16.42 3.00 ± 1.24 4.81 ± 2.79 8.11 ± 6.97
  MDA (Mean ± SE, μmol/l)
0 2.56 ± 0.26 3.02 ± 0.88 2.18 ± 0.78 1.50 ± 0.39
1.5 2.52 ± 1.05 4.57 ± 1.33 3.48 ± 1.48 1.87 ± 0.52
3.5 3.19 ± 1.06 4.54 ± 1.26 2.09 ± 1.22 1.29 ± 0.26
24 3.74 ± 1.00 1.71 ± 0.73b 2.72 ± 2.24 1.89 ± 0.53
48 1.75 ± 0.53 3.13 ± 1.44 3.86 ± 2.79 4.77 ± 3.68
  TNFα (Mean ± SE, pg/ml)
0 18.91 ± 4.95 21.98 ± 8.04 21.99 ± 4.71 22.50 ± 9.09
1.5 34.53 ± 15.55 11.57 ± 0.08 40.96 ± 23.29 113.67 ± 55.52
3.5 43.72 ± 27.02 17.33 ± 5.82 643.85 ± 609.53 31.77 ± 20.51
24 20.81 ± 11.71 248.82 ± 226.51 29.46 ± 17.96 60.49 ± 50.65
48 977,62 ± 97,63 32.81 ± 13.23 18.11 ± 6.61 47.53 ± 26.46
  1. P of comparisons to group A: a0.042, b0.032