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Table 4 Multivariate linear regression models of HIV prevalence (/100,000 adults) among developing countries.1

From: Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries

  Sub-Saharan African countries with heterosexual contact as primary mode of HIV transmission Non-Sub-Saharan African countries with heterosexual contact as primary mode of HIV transmission Non-Sub-Saharan African countrieswith homosexual contact or injection-drug use as primary mode of HIV transmission
  No. of countries Regression coefficient p-value R 2 No. of countries Regression coefficient p-value R 2 No. of countries Regression coefficient p-value R 2
Unadjusted regression model 35    0.68 24    0.70 32    0.49
Percent of population Muslim   -0.013 0.023    0.031 0.02    0.021 0.51  
Percent of population Christian   0.0015 0.84    0.021 0.04    0.017 0.003  
Male circumcision prevalence2   -0.61 <0.001    -2.19 <0.001    -1.26 0.35  
Adjusted regression model 3 27    0.85 22    0.72 23    0.73
Percent of population Muslim   -0.011 0.026    0.014 0.19    -0.036 0.26  
Percent of population Christian   -0.0044 0.48    0.0011 0.94    0.015 0.15  
Male circumcision prevalence2   -0.82 0.001    -1.60 0.001    0.47 0.70  
  1. 1 Analyses conducted with natural log of HIV seroprevalence.
  2. 2 Male circumcision prevalence was coded as 1 = low (<20%), 2 = intermediate (20–80%), and 3 = high (>80%).
  3. 3 Model adjusted by country-specific measures including years since HIV was first reported, major geographical region, percent of population younger than age 25, percent of female adult illiteracy rate, percent of children fully immunized for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, and number of doctors per 100,000 people.