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Table 1 Characteristics, clinical and laboratory diagnosis and outcome of severely malnourished children below 60 months of age by presence or absence of blood stream infections, Mulago hospital, Uganda.

From: Bacteraemia among severely malnourished children infected and uninfected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 in Kampala, Uganda

  Blood bacterial pathogens Odds Ratio (95% Confidence interval)
Characteristics Present n/total (%) Absent n/total (%) Unadjusted Adjusted
Age ≤ 24 months 59/353 (16.7) 17/92 (18.5) 0.89 (0.49–1.61) 0.78 (0.40–1.54)
Sex: male 48/279 (17.2) 28/166 (16.9) 1.02 (0.61–1.71) 0.99 (0.54–1.80)
Oedema 47/251 (18.7) 29/194 (14.9) 1.31 (0.79–2.18) 1.55 (0.81–2.96)
Hypothermia 3/24 (12.5) 21/327 (18.6) 0.62 (0.18–2.15)  
Oral thrush 15/54 (27.8) 61/391 (15.6) 2.08 (1.08–4.01)* 2.31 (1.04–5.11)*
Acute diarrhoea† 16/91 (17.6) 75/354 (21.2) 1.05 (0.57–1.92)  
Persistent diarrhoea†† 15/81 (18.5) 66/364 (18.1) 1.13 (0.61–2.11)  
Respiratory infections 47/277 (17.0) 15/93 (16.1) 1.06 (0.56–2.01)  
Bacteruria 13/79 (16.5) 47/207 (22.7) 0.96 (0.49–1.89)  
Severe anaemia 2/56 (9.1) 20/253 (07.9) 2.3 (0.53–10.2)  
Malaria 5/36 (13.9) 71/406 (17.5) 0.76 (0.29–2.03)  
Hypokalaemia 38/178 (21.4) 38/262 (14.5) 1.60 (0.78–2.17) 1.44 (0.79–2.61)
Hypoalbuminaemia 71/367 (19.3) 5/73 (6.9) 3.26 (1.27–8.39)* 3.54 (1.04–12.1)*
Positive HIV status 30/149 (20.1) 39/259 (15.1) 0.42 (0.84–2.41) 1.67 (0.88–3.15)
CD4<15% 15/58 (13.8) 58/274 (21.2) 0.61 (0.27–1.36) 1.99 (0.76–5.22)
  1. * p-value < 0.05, † frequent loose watery stools lasting ≤ 14 days, †† frequent loose watery stools lasting >14 days