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Table 1 Multivariate analysis of factors associated a low cerebrospinal fluid leukocyte count*

From: Attenuated cerebrospinal fluid leukocyte count and sepsis in adults with pneumococcal meningitis: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics CSF WBC <1000/mm3(n = 104) CSF WBC ≥1000/mm3(n = 216) Odds Ratio (95% CI)† P-value
Mean age ± SD – years 62 ± 17 57 ± 16 1.22 (1.02–1.45) 0.03‡
Duration of symptoms <24 hr 39/97 (40) 110/200 (55) 1.59 (0.93–2.72) 0.09‡
Immunocompromise§ 31 (30) 39/215 (18) 1.74 (0.95–3.18) 0.07‡
Heart rate < 60 beats/min 3/101 (3) 3/202 (1) 3.90 (0.75–20.29) 0.11
Heart rate 60–90 beats/min 26/101 (26) 60/202 (30) - ¶  
Heart rate 90–120 beats/min 45/101 (45) 91/202 (45) 1.00 (0.53–1.89) 0.99
Heart rate >120 beats/min 27/101 (27) 48/202 (24) 1.22(0.52–2.90) 0.65
Diastolic blood pressure <60 mmHg 5/103 (5) 12/209 (6) 0.79 (0.23–2.67) 0.70
Body temperature ≥38°C 84/103 (82) 181/212 (85) 0.59 (0.26–1.29) 0.18
Glasgow Coma Scale score$ 11 (8–13) 10 (8–12) 1.08 (0.96–1.20) 0.20
Focal neurologic deficits 47 (45) 93 (43) 1.14 (0.67–1.94) 0.64
CSF protein level – g/L$ 3.9 (2.2–6.3) 4.7 (2.9–7.1) 0.94 (0.85–1.03) 0.18
CSF:blood glucose ratio$ 0.06 (0.01–0.17) 0.05 (0.01–0.23) 1.08 (0.79–1.49) 0.62
Positive blood culture 72/84 (86) 138/196 (70) 2.46 (1.17–5.14) 0.02‡
ESR – mm/hour$ 47 (23–87) 43 (20–71) 1.14 (0.94–1.39) 0.18
Blood WBC <10 – 109/L 22 (21) 16/213 (8) 1.93 (0.90–4.16) 0.09‡
Blood WBC 10–20 – 109/L 51 (49) 109/213 (51) - ¶  
Blood WBC ≥20 – 109/L 31 (30) 88/213 (41) 0.91 (0.49–1.68) 0.76‡
Thrombocyte count – platelet/mm3 $ 171,000 (118,000–234,000) 214,000 (175,000–262,000) 0.67 (0.47–0.97) 0.03‡
  1. *Table includes 320 patients in which CSF WBC was determined. Data are given as no. of patients with characteristic/no. evaluated (%) or median (interquartile range), unless indicated otherwise.
  2. †odds ratios are calculated in 10-year increments for age, per increments of 0.2 g/L protein, per 20 mm per hour for ESR, and per 100,000/mm3 for thrombocyte count.
  3. ‡significant association in univariate analysis.
  4. §defined as the use of immuno-suppressive drugs, presence of asplenia, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism or infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.
  5. ¶this group served as a reference category.
  6. $Glasgow Coma Scale score was obtained in 319 patients, CSF protein level was determined in 300 patients, CSF:blood glucose ratio in 294, ESR in 256, and the thrombocyte count in 295 patients.
  7. CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; WBC, white blood-cell count; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate.