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Table 2 Chemical agent, concentration [%], pH values, usage point, contact time (min) and purpose of each solution in the water purification

From: Chemical resistance of the gram-negative bacteria to different sanitizers in a water purification system

Chemical Agent Concentration [%] pH Usage Point Contact Time (minutes) Purpose
Hydrogen Peroxide + Peracetic Acid 2.2+0.45 2.1 Reverse Osmosis, Deionization 180 Disinfectant
Ethyl Alcohol 70.0 7.2 Sampling Points 1 Disinfectant
Sodium Hypochlorite 0.5 11.9 Storage Tank, Loop of Distribution 60 Disinfectant
Sodium Bissulphate 1.0 4.0 Multimedia Filters, Softener, Carbon Filter 90 Dechlorination
Sodium Hydroxide 0.4 12.8 Reverse Osmosis, Continuous Deionization 30 pH adjustment
Citric Acid 0.5 2.4 Reverse Osmosis 30 pH adjustment
Chloridric Acid 0.5 0.3 Deionization 30 pH adjustment