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Table 2 Demographic features and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of anti-Hepatitis C in children

From: Hepatitis B and C: prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan

  Anti-Hepatitis C antibody   
Risk Factor Positive n (%) Negative n (%) Odds Ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) P value
Therapeutic Injections     
   Yes 28 (50.9) 1783 (51.3)   
   No 27 (49.1) 1695 (48.7) 0.9 (0.6 – 1.6) 0.958
Use of new needle & and syringe     
   Yes 28 (50.9) 1710 (49.2)   
   No 27 (49.1) 1768 (50.8) 1.0 (0.6 – 1.8) 0.798
No: of Injections in the last year     
   <2 injections 7(38.9) 368 (27.7) Reference  
   2–5 injections 4 (22.2) 471 (35.5) 0.4 (0.1 – 1.5)  
   >5 injections 7 (38.9) 489 (36.8) 0.8 (0.3 – 2.2) 0.427
Received Blood Transfusion     
   Yes 2 (3.7) 50 (1.4)   
   No 53 (96.3) 3428 (98.6) 2.6 (0.6 – 10.9) 0.179
Hospitalized     
   Yes 12 (21.8) 594 (17)   
   No 43 (78.2) 2884(83) 1.4 (0.7 – 2.6) 0.355
Family member died of Liver disease     
   Yes 8(14.5) 360 (10.3)   
   No 47 (85.5) 3118 (89.7) 1.5 (0.7 – 3.1) 0.312
Diagnosis in Family member     
   HCV 1 (12.5) 12 (3.4)   
   HBV 0 37 (10.5) -  
   Jaundice 7(87.5) 304 (86.1)   0.380
Previous Immunization     
   Vaccinated 47 (85.5) 3008 (86.5)   
   Non-Vaccinated 8 (14.5) 470 (13.5) 0.9 (0.4 – 2.0) 0.842
Place vaccinated     
   Private Sector 14 (25.5) 1023 (29.4) Reference  
   Govt. Sector 33 (60) 1987 (57.1) 1.2 (0.6 – 2.3)  
   None 8 (14.5) 469(13.5) 1.2 (0.5 – 3.0) 0.930
Visit to Barber Shop     
   Yes 45 (81.8) 2816 (81)   
   No 10 (18.2) 662 (19) 1.1 (0.5 – 2.1) 0.873
Received cuts at Barber Shop     
   Yes 7 (15.6) 690 (24.5)   
   No 38 (84.4) 2126 (75.5) 0.6 (0.3 – 1.3) 0.165
Child's ear/nose pierced     
   Yes 19 (34.6) 1296 (37.2)   
   No 36 (65.4) 2182 (62.8) 0.9 (0.5 – 1.6) 0.679
Dental treatment     
   Yes 1 (1.9) 106 (3)   
   No 54 (98.1) 3372 (97) 0.6 (0.1 – 4.3) 0.598
Father education status     
   Educated 36 (65.5) 2298 (66)   
   Non-Educated 19 (34.5) 1180 (34) 1.0 (0.6 – 1.8) 0.924
Mother education status     
   Educated 24 (43.7) 1965 (56.5)   
   Non-Educated 31 (56.3) 1513 (43.5) 1.7 (0.9 – 2.9) 0.056
Ethnic Origin     
   Sindhi 1 (1.8) 86 (2.5) Reference  
   Balochi 3 (5.5) 142 (4) 1.8 (0.2 – 17.7)  
   Punjabi 16 (29) 990 (28.5) 1.4 (0.2 – 10.6)  
   Pathan 4 (7.3) 179 (5.1) 1.9 (0.2 – 17.5) 0.568
   Muhajirs 23 (41.8) 1792 (51.5) 1.1 (0.1 – 8.3)  
   Others 8 (14.6) 289 (8.4) 2.4 (0.3 – 19.3)  
Age Group (years)     
   <= 5 13 (23.5) 919 (26.4) Reference  
   6–9 14 (25.5) 931 (26.8) 1.1 (0.5 – 2.3)  
   10–13 14 (25.5) 936 (27) 1.1 (0.5 – 2.3)  
   > 13 14 (25.5) 692 (19.8) 1.4 (0.7 – 3.1) 0.783
Gender     
   Boys 32 (58.2) 1794 (51.6)   
   Girls 23 (41.8) 1684 (48.4) 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 0.331