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Table 1 Antibacterial properties of animal venoms tested against Burkholderia pseudomallei at 0.1 mg/mL concentration.

From: In vitro antimicrobial activity of natural toxins and animal venoms tested against Burkholderia pseudomallei

Common name Scientific name Phospholipase A2 enzymatic activity Yield of protein (mg/mL) Micro-organisms
   Total activity (μmoles/min) Specific activity (μmoles/min/mg protein)   B. pseudomallei (KHW) B. pseudomallei (TES)
Elapidae       
Death adder Acanthophis augtra 3.74 74.5 ± 0.5 0.1 - -
Common death adder Acanthophis antarcticus 190 487.5 ± 0.96 0.78 16.6 ± 0.43 14.3 ± 0.34
Northern death adder Acanthophis praelongus 241.2 1416 ± 3.84 0.34 8.90 ± 0.23 8.47 ± 0.21
Desert death adder Acanthophis pyrrhus 138 1150 ± 0.98 0.24 14.7 ± 0.23 16.5 ± 0.32
Hector Androctonus australis 22.2 85.2 ± 0.27 0.52 - 8.13 ± 0.14
Malayan krait Bungarus candidus 34.9 166.3 ± 0.56 0.42 - -
Sea snake Hydrophis cyanocinctus 3.3 40.5 ± 0.56 0.16 - -
Indian cobra Naja naja naja 293.4 1333 ± 1.7 0.44 12.2 ± 0.16 10.2 ± 0.09
Kreft's tiger snake Notechis aterater 41.96 183.1 ± 0.59 0.46 - -
Spitting cobra Naja sumatrana 406.5 903.5 ± 0.6 0.90 - -
Cobra Naja kaouthia 228.4 1904 ± 3.8 0.24 8.17 ± 0.15 -
King brown snake Pseudechis australis 434.5 3949 ± 3.2 0.22 27.7 ± 0.13 29.8 ± 0.105
Speckled brown snake Pseudechis guttata 308.5 791 ± 2.0 0.78 25.4 ± 0.19 26.8 ± 0.109
Red-bellied black snake Pseudechis porphyriacus 726.7 3303 ± 1.7 0.44 16.8 ± 0.15 14.2 ± 0.17
Collett's snake Pseudechis colletti 15.7 111.8 ± 0.89 0.28 - -
- Pseudonaja inframaggula 1995 5945 ± 26.6 0.66 7.7 ± 0.16 8.32 ± 0.11
Western brown snake Pseudonaja nuchalis 162.8 361.8 ± 0.6 0.90 8.2 ± 0.08 9.30 ± 0.11
Eastern brown snake Pseudonaja textilis 416.8 832.3 ± 0.6 1 14.2 ± 0.09 8.10 ± 0.14
Dugite Pseudechis affinis 218.7 376.8 ± 0.9 1.16 - -
Tiger keelback Rhabdophis tigrinus 36.3 259.1 ± 0.42 0.28 - -
The coastal taipan Oxyuranus scutellatus 1275.7 6075 ± 0.98 0.63 - -
Viperidae       
Pallas Agkistrodon halys 86.5 157.4 ± 0.20 1.1 20.4 ± 0.14 26.4 ± 0.08
Puff adder Bitis arietans 124.1 248.2 ± 0.27 0.54 18.2 ± 0.16 16.2 ± 0.17
West African gaboon viper Bitis gabonica rhinoceros 126.5 452.4 ± 0.57 0.56 16.0 ± 0.19 14.5 ± 0.26
Common lancehead snake Bothrops atrox (L-amino acid oxidase) 3.8 6.36 ± 0.06 1.2 24.4 ± 0.19 26.2 ± 0.19
South American rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus (L-amino acid oxidase) 34.2 201.3 ± 0.21 0.34 25.4 ± 0.208 23.4 ± 0.18
South American rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus 236.4 619.4 ± 0.46 1.56 30.0 ± 0.23 28.3 ± 0.23
Saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus 53.4 106.5 ± 0.49 1.4 8.0 ± 0.14 7.5 ± 0.15
Indian Russell's viper Daboia russelli russelli 392.8 785.2 ± 0.40 1.36 29.9 ± 0.12 28.6 ± 0.16
Burmese Russell's viper Daboia russelli siamensis 262.4 524.4 ± 0.44 1.24 16.2 ± 0.15 15.6 ± 0.18
Wagler's pit viper Trimeresurus wagleri 4.6 38.2 ± 0.26 0.24 15.1 ± 0.14 16.3 ± 0.14
Apiidae       
Honeybee venom Apis mellifera 3.7 20.5 ± 0.1 0.36 7.22 ± 0.23 12.3 ± 0.21
Scorpionidae       
Black scorpion Androctonus crasicuda 3.6 69.5 ± 0.3 0.104 - -
Scorpion Buthotus hottenlota 4.4 10.4 ± 0.2 0.86 - -
Scorpion Buthotus hottenota hottenota 5.1 38.8 ± 0.1 0.26 - -
Chinese red scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. 4.6 90.4 ± 0.2 0.102 - -
Ceftazidime (CF) 30 μg/disc - - - 28.9 ± 0.56 31.7 ± 0.78
Chloramphenicol (C) 30 μg/disc - - - 28.5 ± 0.37 30.0 ± 0.12
Streptomycin (S) 10 μg/disc - - - 27.3 ± 0.25 26.4 ± 0.29
  1. Values of Phospholipase A2 enzymatic activity (μmoles/min/mg protein) are presented as mean ± S.D. (n = 10) of ten replicates.
  2. *The values given as mean ± S.D. (n = 5) represent a venom inhibition zone in mm, including the 7 mm diameter of the disc, after 24 h incubation. The bacterial inoculum per plate contained 3.2 × 108 colony forming units (cfu/mL) which were spread onto the TS agar surface with sterile cotton swap. Sterile paper discs (7 mm diameter) were placed onto the TS agar surface and 20 μL of venom solution (0.1 mg/mL) added. Micro-organisms: B.p (KHW)-Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW) and B.p (TES) Burkholderia pseudomallei (TES), Control (0); No activity (-), Drug controls: Chloramphenicol (30 μg/disc); Ceftazidime (30 μg/disc); Streptomycin (10 μg/disc).