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Table 1 Characteristics of Zimbabwean newborns by HIV status of the mother and her infant.

From: Neonatal erythropoiesis and subsequent anemia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Zimbabwean babies during the first year of life: a longitudinal study

  HIV status group  
  Nn (n = 136) Pn (n = 324) Pp (n = 99) P-value*
Maternal characteristics     
   Hemoglobin, g/L†, ‡ 122 (17)a 113 (18)b 110 (19)b <0.001
>110, % 78.8 60.6 53.2  
90–110, % 18.9 29.8 35.1  
<90, % 2.2 9.6 11.7 <0.001
   CD4+ lymphocyte count, cells/μL     
≥400 ------- 40.7 34.3  
200–400   33.6 29.2  
<200   12.3 26.2 <0.01
   Age, y 23 (5)a 26 (5)b 25 (5)b <0.0001
   Parity 1.9 (1.2)a 2.4 (1.3)b 2.3 (1.3)b <0.001
Infant characteristics     
   Sex, % female 48.5 47.5 50.5 0.87
   Birthweight, g 2917 (454)a 2969 (464)a 2830 (462)b 0.030
<2500 g, % 19.2 14.9 24.2 0.089
   Gestational age, wk 39.0 (1.4) 39.1 (1.4) 39.0 (1.6) 0.46
<38 wk gestation, % 18.4 17.9 21.9 0.68
   Length, cm 48.7 (2.7)a 49.0 (2.7)a 48.1 (2.9)b 0.022
   Head circumference, cm 34.3 (1.6) 34.2 (1.5) 33.8 (1.8) 0.079
  1. Abbreviations: Nn, mother HIV negative, baby HIV negative; Pn, mother HIV positive, baby HIV negative at 6 months; Pp, mother HIV positive, baby HIV positive at 6 weeks.
  2. a,b Means in a row without a common letter differ, P < 0.05, Bonferroni multiple-comparison test.
  3. * From analysis of variance for continuous variables and χ2-test for categorical variables.
  4. † Values are mean (SD) or %.
  5. ‡ Variables (n) with missing data include maternal hemoglobin (21), CD4+ lymphocyte count (53), maternal age (1), parity (0), birthweight (3), gestational age (9), length (1), and head circumference (1).