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Table 1 Patient characteristics in naïve and experienced groups

From: Incidence and risk factors for liver enzyme elevation during highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: results from the Italian EPOKA-MASTER Cohort

Charactertistic Antiretroviral naïve (N = 155) Antiretroviral experienced (N = 883)
(quantitative) Mean SD Mean SD
Age (years) 38.86 6.47 38.91 5.44
Nadir CD4+ (cells/μl) 185.02 115.79 159.99 131.80
CD4+ T-cell count at baseline (cells/μl) 206.75 133.53 357.88 233.05
HIV-RNA at baseline (copies/ml) 177,480 252,619 53,615 168,410
ALT at baseline (x10 IU/l) 6.94 4.14 7.13 4.42
AST at baseline (x10 IU/l) 6.27 3.88 5.87 3.94
CD4+ T-cell slope (cells/μl) 107.86 116.37 44.30 149.48
Exposure to DDX-drugs at baseline (days) - - 1,288 1,075
(qualitative) N % N %
Gender (male) 113 72.90 677 76.67
Risk factor for HIV acquisition (former IVDU) 105 67.74 684 77.46
HBsAg positivity 15 10.27 55 6.48
HDVAb positivity 4 2.96 25 2.83
Previous grade ≥III LFT elevation 15 9.68 317 35.90
Previous treatment with IFN 7 4.52 72 8.15
Concurrent use of DDX-drugs 50 32.26 526 59.57
Concurrent use of 3TC 138 89.03 618 69.99
Concurrent use of TDF 17 18.97 136 15.40
Treatment group (Single PI) 32 20.64 202 22.88
NFV 27 84.38 147 72.77
IDV 2 6.25 32 15.84
SQV 3 9.37 19 9.41
Others - - 4 1.98
Treatment group (Multiple PI) 50 32.26 322 36.47
LPV/r 42 84 175 54.35
IDV/r 5 10 83 25.78
SQV/r 1 2 48 14.91
Others 2 4 16 4.96
Treatment group (NNRTI) 73 47.10 359 41.62
EFV 42 57.53 165 45.96
NVP 31 42.47 194 54.04
  1. The following abbreviations were used: SD = standard deviation; ALT = alanine amino-transferase, AST = aspartate amino-transferase; DDX = dideoxy-nucleoside analogue drugs (i.e., didanosine, stavudine, zalcitabine); IVDU = intra-venous drug use; IFN = interferon; 3TC = lamivudine, TDF = tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; PI = protease inhibitor, NFV = nelfinavir, IDV = indinavir, SQV = saquinavir, LPV/r = lopinavir/ritonavir, IDV/r = indinavir/ritonavir; SQV/r = saquinavir/ritonavir; NNRTI = non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, EFV = efavirenz, NVP = nevirapine.
  2. The following variables were different between drug naive and experienced patients at univariate comparison: nadir CD4+ T-cell count (P: 0.027), CD4+ T-cell count at baseline (P < 0.001), HIV-RNA at baseline (P < 0.001), CD4+ T-cell slope (P: <0.001), risk factor for HIV acquisition (P: 0.009), previous LFT elevation grade ≥III (P < 0.001), concurrent use of DDX-drugs (P < 0.001), concurrent use of 3TC (P < 0.001), use of IDV as single PI (P: 0.002), use of LPV/r (P: 0.04) or SQV/r (P: 0.009) as multiple PI, use of EFV as NNRTI (P: 0.016).
  3. CD4+ T-cell slope was available for 146 patients in naïve group and for 844 patients in experienced group; HBsAg status was available for 146 patients in naive group and for 848 patients in experienced group; HDVAb status was available for 135 patients in naive group and for 833 patients in experienced group.