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Table 2 Risk of micronutrient deficiencies at different severity levels of wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis with and without HIV co-infection.

From: Micronutrient malnutrition and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis with and without HIV co-infection in Malawi

  Mild wasting   Moderate wasting   Severe wasting  
  BMI 17.0–18.49   BMI 16.0–16.99   BMI <16.0  
Deficiency O.R. (95% C.I.)* P -value O.R. (95% C.I.)* P -value O.R. (95% C.I.)* P -value
Vitamin A deficiency 0.81 (0.58–1.13) 0.20 1.59 (1.03–2.47) 0.03 3.51 (2.19–5.72) 0.0001
Lowest quartile of Total Carotenoids 0.92 (0.62–1.36) 0.67 2.46 (1.57–3.85) 0.0001 1.82 (1.18–2.83) 0.007
Vitamin E deficiency 0.86 (0.54–1.37) 0.54 1.24 (0.70–2.18) 0.46 1.13 (0.64–1.97) 0.68
Zinc deficiency 0.71 (0.45–1.15) 0.17 0.61 (0.37–1.00) 0.05 0.76 (0.46–1.24) 0.27
Selenium deficiency 1.59 (1.04–2.43) 0.03 1.16 (0.62–2.17) 0.65 3.25 (1.38–7.62) 0.007
  1. * Adjusted for sex (male), age (per year) and HIV load (quartiles, where category 0 is HIV negative and category 3 is the highest.