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Table 1 Characteristics of adults presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zomba, Malawi – by plasma HIV load

From: Micronutrient malnutrition and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis with and without HIV co-infection in Malawi

Characteristic1 HIV negative HIV positive* Plasma HIV Load (copies/mL) P-value**
  0 ≤ 133 200 133 200 – 406 000 > 406 000  
  n = 222 n = 185 n = 186 n = 186  
Sex (% Female) 45.9 63.2 58.1 55.9 0.07
Age (years) 33 ± 12 32 ± 12 33 ± 12 33 ± 12 0.01
Body mass index (BMI) (wt/ht2) 18.6 ± 2.9 19.0 ± 2.6 18.3 ± 3.0 17.3 ± 2.7 0.0001
Wasting:2 No, BMI ≥ 18.5 42.3 51.4 41.9 30.1 0.005
Mild, BMI 17.0–18.49 (%) 32.0 27.0 22.6 24.2 0.04
Moderate, BMI 16.0–16.99 (%) 13.1 10.3 17.2 18.8 0.04
Severe, BMI <16.0 (%) 12.6 11.4 18.3 26.9 0.001
Retinol (μmol/L) 0.636 (0.367, 1.104) 0.603 (0.336, 1.085) 0.585 (0.321, 1.066) 0.522 (0.157, 1.738) 0.001
Vitamin A deficiency, retinol <0.70 μmol/L (%)3 58.6 57.3 64.0 66.7 0.05
Total Carotenoids (μmol/L)4 0.846 (0.490, 1.459) 0.795 (0.476, 1.329) 0.700 (0.385, 1.279) 0.509 (0.279, 0.929) 0.0001
α-tocopherol (μmol/L) 15.18 (11.71, 19.65) 14.90 (11.60, 19.16) 15.66 (11.85, 20.71) 16.07 (11.53, 22.40) 0.02
Vitamin E def., α-tocopherol <11.6 μmol/L (%)3 13.1 14.6 11.8 12.4 0.67
Zinc (μmol/L) 8.95 (7.01, 11.43) 8.83 (6.94, 11.25) 8.49 (6.44, 11.19) 9.15 (6.47, 12.94) 0.82
Zinc deficiency, zinc <11.5 μmol/L (%)3 84.2 88.1 87.6 77.4 0.09
Selenium (μmol/L) 0.687 ± 0.23 0.664 ± 0.22 0.624 ± 0.22 0.559 ± 0.21 0.0001
Selenium deficiency, selenium<0.89 μmol/L(%)3 79.7 84.9 90.3 92.5 0.001
  1. 1 Mean ± SD for continues variables with normal distribution, geometric mean (lower, upper SD) when distribution was not normal
  2. 2 Grading based on WHO Expert report, reference 27.
  3. 3 Cut-offs based on reference 28.
  4. 4α-carotene + β-carotene + β-cryptoxanthin + lycopene + lutein + zeaxanthin
  5. * HIV load could not be determined for 21 individuals.
  6. * *ANOVA, linear trend across the 4 categories of plasma HIV load.