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Table 3 Univariate analysis of HIV risk factors among 689 male inmates, Bangkok Thailand, 2001–2002.

From: HIV infection and risk factors among Bangkok prisoners, Thailand: a prospective cohort study

Factors Anti-HIV positivity N (%) Unadjusted OR 95 % CI p-value
Demographics     
   Age (years, median)     
32 93/378 (24.6) 1.00   
>32 82/311 (26.4) 1.10 0.78–1.55 0.60
   Marital status     
Single 74/293 (25.3) 1.00   
Ever married 101/396 (25.5) 1.01 0.72–1.43 0.94
   Home town     
Bangkok/suburbs 81/334 (24.3) 1.00   
Other places 94/355 (26.5) 1.12 0.80–1.56 0.50
   Highest education level     
Primary 89/347 (25.7) 1.00   
Secondary or higher 79/323 (24.5) 0.94 0.66–1.33 0.72
   Employment     
Unemployed 13/44 (29.6) 1.00   
Employed 162/645 (25.1) 0.80 0.41–1.55 0.51
   Monthly income excluding the unemployed (Baht, median )     
6000 72/326 (22.1) 1.00   
> 6000 81/297 (27.3) 1.32 0.92–1.91 0.13
   Type of offense     
Narcotic-related 82/298 (27.5) 1.00   
Others 93/391 (23.8) 0.82 0.58–1.16 0.26
   Term of sentence (years, median )     
18 45/150 (30.0) 1.00   
> 18 44/148 (29.7) 1.00 0.60–1.62 0.96
   Duration of sentence already served (years, median)     
5 59/185 (31.9) 1.00   
>5 30/111 (27.0) 0.79 0.47–1.33 0.78
Blood-related risk     
   History of heroin injection     
   - Never 13/338 (3.9) 1.00   
   - Before incarceration only 20/83 (24.1) 7.94 3.80–16.58 <0.001
   - Continued into incarceration 99/188 (52.7) 27.81 15.00–51.48 <0.001
   - Initiated during incarceration 43/80 (53.8) 29.05 14.42–58.49 <0.001
   Urine opiate test     
Non-reactive 117/611 (19.2) 1.00   
Reactive 58/78 (74.4) 12.24 7.12–21.05 <0.001
   Ever attending withdrawal clinic     
Never 109/578 (18.9) 1.00   
Ever 66/111 (59.5) 6.31 4.10–9.71 <0.001
   Tattooing     
- Never 17/228 (7.5) 1.00   
- Before incarceration only 34/127 (26.8) 4.54 2.43–8.47 <0.001
- Continued into incarceration 62/166 (37.4) 7.40 4.14–13.21 <0.001
- Initiated during incarceration 62/168 (36.9) 7.26 4.06–13.00 <0.001
   Sharing razor blades     
Never 27/150 (18.0) Referent   
Ever 139/538 (25.8) 1.72 1.09–2.72 0.019
   Receiving blood transfusion     
Never 162/635 (25.5) Referent   
Ever 13/54 (24.1) 0.93 0.49–1.76 0.816
Risk factors among 351 injectors only     
   Sharing injection paraphernalia     
No 5/19 (26.32) Referent   
Yes 157/332 (47.29) 2.51 0.92–6.85 0.074
   Injection scars     
No 59/190 (31.05) Referent   
Yes 103/161 (63.98) 3.94 2.53–6.15 <0.001
   Injection duration (years, median)     
7 73/207 (35.27) Referent   
>7 89/144 (61.81) 2.97 1.91–4.61 <0.001
Sexual risks     
   Visiting prostitute before incarceration     
Never 39/128 (30.5) Referent   
Ever 136/561 (24.2) 0.73 0.48–1.11 0.144
   Sex with non-wife women     
Never 44/143 (30.8) Referent   
Ever 131/546 (24.0) 0.71 0.47–1.06 0.098
   Unprotected sex (sex without condom)     
Never 14/20 (70.0) Referent   
Ever 161/669 (24.1) 0.14 0.05–0.35 <0.001
   Sex with men     
   - Never 123/506 (24.3) Referent   
   - Before incarceration only 13/40 (32.5) 1.50 0.76–2.97 0.249
   - Continued into incarceration 20/64 (31.2) 1.42 0.81–2.48 0.228
   - Initiated during incarceration 19/79 (24.0) 0.99 0.57–1.71 0.960
   Having sexually transmitted diseases     
Never 102/393 (26.0) Referent   
Ever 73/296 (24.7) 0.93 0.66–1.32 0.700