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Table 2 Result of statistical analysis comparing demographic, clinical and laboratory/ radiological variables (PSI class II ED discharged and class II hospitalized)

From: Determinants for hospitalization in " low-risk" community acquired pneumonia

Variables Discharged N = 169 No. (%) Hospitalized N = 67 No. (%) OR [95%CI] p-value
Demographics
Age in years (mean ± sd) 39 ± 5.29 37 ± 8.76 - -
Gender     
Male 66 (39) 12 (18) 2.94 [1.46–5.89] 0.0018
Female 103 (61) 55 (82)   
Race     
African-American 68 (40) 46 (69) 0.06 [0.04–0.09] 0.0004
Whites 97 (57) 20 (30)   
Others 4 (3) 1 (1)   
Clinical
Change in mental status - - - -
Respiratory Rate > 30 - - - -
SBP < 90 mmHg 13 (8) 5 (7) 0.97 [0.33–2.83] 0.9522
Temp >105 F 2 (1) 24 (36) 0.02 [0.01–0.09] <0.0001
Pulse rate >125 15 (9) 39 (58) 0.07 [0.03–0.14] <0.0001
Laboratory/ Radiological
Arterial pH < 7.35 11 (7) 8 (12) 0.97 [0.33–2.83] 0.9522
BUN > 30 mg/dL 20 (12) 9 (13) 0.87 [0.37–2.01] 0.7359
Na <130 mmol/L 12 (7) 8 (12) 0.97 [0.33–2.83] 0.9522
Glucose < 250 mg/dL 17 (10) 6 (9) 1.14 [0.43–3.02] 0.7965
Hct < 30% 23 (14) 11 (16) 1.25 [0.57–2.73] 0.5796
pO2 < 60 mmHg/O2sat < 90% 26 (15) 8 (12) 0.75 [0.32–1.74] 0.4969
Social factors
Alcohol-related diagnosis 28 (17) 18 (27) 1.85 [0.94–3.64] 0.0718
Illicit drug use 23 (14) 11 (16) 1.25 [0.57–2.73] 0.5796
Time of ED visit     
7am–7pm 101(60) 39 (58) 0.94 [0.53–1.67] 0.8265
7pm–7am 68 (40) 28 (42)   
Day of ED visit     
Weekdays 142 (86) 55 (83) 0.87 [0.41–1.84] 0.7183
Weekends 27 (14) 12 (17)   
Financial Factors
Insurance status     
Self pay 63 (37%) 10 (14%) 0.38 [0.19–0.63] 0.0034
Private insurance 88 (52%) 46 (71%)   
Medical assistance 18 (11%) 11 (15%)   
Utilization of services     
Average length of stay <1 day 3.5 days - -
Cost of care (mean ± sd) $476.02 ± $3909.32 ± - -
  99.25 347.32   
  1. (Numbers in parenthesis represent percentages)