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Table 4 Risk factors associated with overall HR-HPV incidence and clearance

From: A prospective study of age trends of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in rural China

Incidence/Clearance Risk factors* Univariate Multivariate
    OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)ξ
Incidence (n = 1959) No. of sex partners in the past 6 months p= 0.002 p= 0.001
  0 1.0 1.0
  1 1.01 (0.58-1.76) 1.11 (0.62-1.97)
  2 6.40 (2.04-20.05) 7.80 (2.46-24.75)
Clearance (n = 832) Age (years) p< 0.001 p< 0.001
  25-29 1.0 1.0
  30-34 0.30 (0.11-0.80) 0.28 (0.10-0.78)
  35-39 0.32 (0.13-0.80) 0.36 (0.14-0.91)
  40-44 0.49 (0.20-1.20) 0.48 (0.19-1.21)
  45-49 0.34 (0.14-0.84) 0.35 (0.14-0.89)
  50-54 0.20 (0.08-0.49) 0.19 (0.07-0.48)
  55-59 0.17 (0.07-0.41) 0.15 (0.06-0.38)
  60-65 0.10 (0.04-0.30) 0.11 (0.04-0.33)
Education level (years) p= 0.001 p = 0.204
  ≤6 1.0  
  7-12 1.61 (1.22-2.13)  
  ≥13 3.29 (1.03-10.51)  
Age at first sexual intercourse (years) p= 0.037 p = 0.496
  ≤19 1.0  
  20-22 1.46 (1.05-2.04)  
  ≥23 1.06 (0.72-1.56)  
No. of sex partners in the past 6 months p= 0.014 p = 0.066
  0 1.0  
  1 1.68 (1.08-2.58)  
  2 0.60 (0.20-1.84)  
Menopausal status § p< 0.001 p = 0.433
  No 1.0  
  Yes 0.41 (0.31-0.55)  
No. of live births § p< 0.001 p = 0.695
  0-2 1.0  
  ≥3 0.57 (0.42-0.76)  
Signal strength (RLU/CO) p< 0.001 p < 0.001
  1.00-9.99 1.0 1.0
  10.00-99.99 0.27 (0.20-0.38) 0.28 (0.20-0.40)
  ≥100.00 0.43 (0.29-0.62) 0.40 (0.27-0.59)
HPV16/18/45 p< 0.001 p = 0.052
  Negative 1.0 1.0
  Positive 0.56 (0.40-0.78) 0.70 (0.48-1.00)
  1. NOTE: *Risk factors were defined on the basis of risk factors at baseline. ξMultivariate logistic model was adjusted for study sites, household income, marital status and oral contraceptive for incidence and clearance. Furthermore, for incidence, VIA and HC2 results at baseline were also adjusted in the multivariate analysis. HPV16/18/45 was put into the model for marginally association. In the multivariate analysis, OR was given only if statistical significant. §Missing values were excluded in the analysis. Bold type indicated statistical significant (p < 0.05). HPV = human papillomavirus; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval.