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Table 4 Determinants of family caregiver burden with two-level random intercept model (n = 1478)

From: Caregiver burden and its determinants among family members of patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Shanghai, China: a community-based survey

Characteristic Value β value Std. error t Pvalue 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Intercept   25.52 4.66 5.48 0.00 16.37 34.66
Patients        
 Gender - no. (%)        
  Male 951 (64.34) -0.75 0.86 -0.87 0.38 -2.44 0.94
  Female 527 (35.66) 0a 0     
 Age - years 51.15(SD 13.28)       
 Type of hepatitis - no. (%)        
  Hepatitis B 1308 (88.50) 1.45 1.30 1.12 0.26 -1.09 4.00
  Hepatitis C 88 (5.95) 4.49 1.67 2.69 0.01 1.22 7.77
  Hepatitis B and D 2 (0.14) 3.64 9.08 0.40 0.69 -14.18 21.46
  Unidentified 80 (5.41) 0a 0     
 Clinical diagnosis - no. (%)        
  Chronic viral hepatitis 1372 (92.83) -1.73 2.86 -0.61 0.55 -7.33 3.88
  Cirrhosis 95 (6.43) 2.46 3.00 0.82 0.41 -3.43 8.35
  Liver cancer 11 (0.75) 0a 0     
 Antiviral therapy - no. (%)        
  Yes 1115 (75.44) 1.14 0.69 1.65 0.10 -0.22 2.50
  No 363 (24.56) 0a 0     
 Hospitalisation or outpatient in the last year - no. (%)        
  Hospitalisation 889 (60.15) 1.69 0.62 2.74 0.01 0.48 2.90
  Outpatient 589 (39.85) 0a 0     
 The mean levels of serum alanine aminotransferase in the past 6 months - (IU/L) 222.32 (659.55) 1.05 0.46 2.29 0.02 0.15 1.95
 Insurance for medical care - no. (%)        
  For urban residents 594 (40.19) -1.44 1.48 -0.97 0.33 -4.34 1.46
  For urban workers 565 (38.23) -1.02 1.48 -0.69 0.49 -3.93 1.89
  New rural cooperative 160 (10.83) -0.61 1.65 -0.37 0.71 -3.84 2.63
  Private expense 113 (7.64) -1.16 1.70 -0.68 0.50 -4.50 2.18
  Commercial insurance 46 (3.11) 0a 0     
 Alcohol consumption - no. (%)        
  No consumption of alcohol 1263 (85.45) -2.69 1.28 -2.11 0.04 -5.19 -0.19
  Less than or equal to 1 time per week 140 (9.47) -2.03 1.46 -1.39 0.16 -4.88 0.83
  More than 1 time per week 75 (5.08) 0a 0     
 Average monthly costs for patients - no. (%)        
  Less than or equal to 100 US dollars 910 (61.57) -2.96 1.46 -2.02 0.04 -5.83 -0.09
  Less than 500 and more than 100 US dollars 515 (34.84) -0.90 1.50 -0.60 0.55 -3.85 2.04
  More than 500 US dollars 53 (3.59) 0a 0     
Family caregiver        
 Gender - no. (%)        
  Male 561 (37.96) -0.78 0.82 -0.95 0.34 -2.39 0.83
  Female 917 (62.04) 0a 0     
 Age - years 51.31(SD 13.66) -0.06 0.04 -1.59 0.11 -0.13 0.01
 Relationship - no. (%)        
  Parents 139 (9.40) 1.66 2.01 0.83 0.41 -2.28 5.59
  Spouse 1133 (76.66) 0.78 1.07 0.73 0.47 -1.32 2.88
  Siblings or children 206 (13.94) 0a 0     
 Health status - no. (%)        
  Healthy 966 (65.36) -9.91 1.46 -6.81 0.00 -12.76 -7.05
  Ordinary 428 (28.96) -6.65 1.47 -4.51 0.00 -9.54 -3.76
  Bad 84 (5.68) 0a 0     
 Average monthly household income - US dollar 1219.06(SD 2827.33) 5.20e-6 1.45e-5 0.360 0.72 -2.33e-5 3.37e-5
 Infected or not - no. (%)        
  Yes 199 (13.46) -0.78 0.84 -0.93 0.35 -2.42 0.86
  No 1279 (86.54) 0a 0     
 Acceptance of the hepatitis B vaccine - no. (%)        
  Yes 742 (50.20) 2.20 0.84 2.62 0.01 0.56 3.85
  With no answer 503 (34.03) 1.57 0.86 1.82 0.07 -0.12 3.25
  No 233 (15.77) 0a 0     
 Acceptance of regular interviews - no. (%)        
  Yes 894 (60.49) -0.54 0.83 -0.65 0.52 -2.17 1.09
  With no answer 315 (21.31) -1.46 1.09 -1.35 0.18 -3.59 0.67
  No 269 (18.20) 0a 0     
 Nursing time of family caregiver - years 12.56(SD 12.39) 0.02 0.03 0.78 0.44 -0.03 0.07
  1. aThis parameter is set to zero because it is redundant.