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Table 2 Univariate analysis comparing risk factors among rotavirus AGE cases and controls, western Kenya, 2010-11

From: A sham case-control study of effectiveness of DTP-Hib-hepatitis B vaccine against rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in Kenya

Variablea Cases (N = 91) Community controls (N = 271) Hospital non-AGE controls (N = 203) Hospital non-rotavirus AGE controls (N = 252)
  n (%) n (%) Univariate P value Multivariate OR (95% CI) n (%) Univariate P values Multivariate OR (95% CI) n (%) Univariate P values Multivariate OR (95% CI)
Male 53 (58) 136 (50) 0.26   102 (50) 0.34   135 (54) 0.44  
Age in monthsb           
3–5 31 (34) 67 (25)   Matched 47 (23)   Matched 60 (24) ref  
6–11 36 (40) 120 (44) 92 (45)   96 (38) 0.28
12–17 16 (18) 47 (17) 47 (23)   58 (23) 0.08
19-23 8 (9) 37 (14) 17 (8)   38 (15) 0.05
Mother ≤ primary education 66 (74) 222 (82) 0.10   161 (80) 0.16   204 (82) 0.14  
Father ≤ primary educationc 39 (43) 174 (64) <0.01 0.32 (0.16 – 0.68) 102 (50) 0.02 0.30 (0.13 – 0.70) 147 (58) <0.01 0.44 (0.25 – 0.80)
Mother currently married 68 (76) 229 (85) 0.08 0.15 (0.04 – 0.66) 167 (83) 0.08 0.30 (0.10 – 0.87) 210 (83) 0.15 0.31 (0.14 – 0.66)
≤ 30 minutes to health facilityc 48 (53) 127 (47) 0.53   102 (50) 0.17   115 (46) 0.29  
SES quintile           
Poorest 17 (20) 80 (30) <0.001 1 41 (21) ref 1 45 (18) ref  
Poorer 6 (7) 58 (22) 0.75 (0.24 – 2.34) 34 (17) 0.15 0.17 (0.04 – 0.76) 53 (21) 0.02
Poor 12 (14) 56 (21) 0.96 (0.36 – 2.56) 32 (16) 0.62 0.54 (0.17 – 1.78) 47 (19) 0.36
Less poor 34 (40) 48 (18) 2.54 (1.11 – 5.85) 54 (27) 0.38 1.27 (0.46 – 3.50) 65 (27) 0.36
Least poor 17 (20) 25 (9) 2.00 (0.75 – 5.35) 38 (19) 0.91 0.56 (0.16 – 1.97) 34 (11) 0.50
HIV positive 3 (3) 5 (2) 0.01   7 (3) ref   15 (6) Ref  
HIV negative 64 (70) 231 (85) 160 (79) 0.54 164 (65) 0.30
HIV unknown 24 (26) 35 (13) 36 (18) 0.45 73 (29) 0.46
Born prematurelyc 2 (2) 11 (2) 0.60   25 (12) 0.03 0.13 (0.02 – 0.83) 36 (14) 0.01  
Source of water           
Tap 9 (10) 13 (5) 0.03   17 (8) ref   7 (3) ref 1
Unprotected spring 33 (32) 80 (30) 76 (37) 0.43 84 (33) 0.03 0.23 (0.07 – 0.75)
River/stream 38 (42) 118 (44) 73 (36) 0.34 114 (45) 0.01 0.21 (0.07 – 0.66)
Other sources 11 (12) 58 (22) 37 (18) 0.16 47 (19) 0.01 0.13 (0.03 – 0.47)
Ever used ORS before 70 (80) 183 (69) 0.03   133 (67) 0.03 3.12 (1.27 – 7.64) 203 (82) 0.88  
Does not attend daycare 84 (92) 219 (82) 0.01 4.14 (1.41 – 12.15) 192 (95) 0.83   224 (89) 0.36  
Season           
Jan-Mar 54 (59) 164 (61)   Matched 130 (64)   Matched 95 (38) ref 1
Apr-Jun 20 (22) 55 (20) 42 (21) 101 (40) <0.01 0.27 (0.14 – 0.52)
Jul-Sep 10 (11) 31 (11) 12 (6) 29 (12) 0.22 0.63 (0.27 – 1.46)
Oct-Dec 7 (7) 20 (7) 19 (9) 27 (11) 0.09 0.39 (0.15 – 1.05)
Underweight           
Normal 77 (84) 212 (78) 0.15   154 (76) ref 1 181 (72) ref  
Moderate 10 (11) 37 (14) 18 (9) 0.72 0.57 (0.17 – 1.93) 29 (12) 0.59
Severe 4 (4) 22 (8) 31 (15) 0.01 0.10 (0.02 – 0.60) 42 (17) 0.01
Stunting           
Normal 64 (70) 119 (44) <0.01 1 128 (63) ref   160 (63) ref  
Moderate 12 (13) 54 (20) 0.60 (0.25 – 1.46) 33 (16) 0.35 41 (16) 0.39
Severe 15 (16) 98 (36) 0.19 (0.08 – 0.48) 42 (21) 0.05 51 (20) 0.35
Wasting           
Normal 84 (92) 252 (93) 0.91   171 (84) ref   194 (77) ref  
Moderate 4 (4) 8 (3) 14 (7) 0.34 21 (8) 0.14
Severe 3 (3) 11 (4)    18 (9) 0.12   37 (14) 0.01  
  1. aOnly variables that were significantly different between cases and controls, or of particular epidemiologic interest, are listed in tables. The following variables were not significantly associated with case status: maternal age, number of children in household, fare to nearest facility, history of an AGE hospitalization, enrollment in the HDSS, treats drinking water, and mother knows about ORS.
  2. bTwo controls that were < 3 months old and three that were >23 months old, due to range of allowable matching ages were included in the 3–5 and 19–23 age groups respectively.
  3. c> 5% persons with missing or unknown responses included in multivariable analysis as a dummy variable (see methods).