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Table 3 Clinical and haematological characteristics of 90 severe and 491 non-severe typhoid fever patients

From: Risk factors for the development of severe typhoid fever in Vietnam

Characteristic Severe or fatal n = 90 Non-severe n = 491 OR 95% CI p value
Signs & symptoms      
Abdominal pain 45 (50.0) 133 (27.1) 2.69 1.70-4.26 <0.001
Constipation 29 (32.2) 105 (21.4) 1.75 1.07-2.86 0.025
Diarrhoea 62 (68.9) 259 (52.7) 1.98 1.23-3.21 0.005
Vomiting 30 (33.3) 86 (17.5) 2.36 1.43-3.87 0.001
Cough 21 (23.3) 110 (22.4) 1.05 0.62-1.80 0.846
Headache 42 (46.7) 178 (36.3) 1.54 0.98-2.42 0.061
Temperature >40°C 50 (58.1) 268 (56.5) 1.07 0.67-1.70 0.783
Systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg 9 (10.0) 16 (3.3) 3.30 1.41-7.72 0.004
Hepatomegaly 62 (68.9) 241 (49.1) 2.30 1.42-3.71 0.001
Splenomegaly 19 (21.1) 82 (16.7) 1.34 0.76-2.33 0.310
Rash 5 (5.6) 10 (2.0) 2.83 0.94-8.48 0.053
Haematology      
Haematocrit <30%1 23 (26.7) 49 (11.3) 2.85 1.63-5.01 <0.001
White cell count <4×109/L2 10 (11.1) 30 (6.1) 1.92 0.90-4.07 0.086
White cell count >15×109/L2 5 (5.6) 6 (1.2) 4.75 1.42-15.90 0.006
Platelet count <100×109L 3 7 (9.9) 20 (5.8) 1.77 0.72-4.35 0.211
SGOT > 200 IU/L4 33 (63.5) 30 (17.9) 7.99 4.01-15.91 <0.001
SGPT > 200 IU/L4 28 (53.8) 16 (9.5) 11.08 5.24-23.47 <0.001
  1. 1n = 518.
  2. 2n = 580.
  3. 3n = 414.
  4. 4n = 220.