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Table 1 The demographics and clinical features of 581 typhoid fever patients categorised by age

From: Risk factors for the development of severe typhoid fever in Vietnam

Covariate All ages <5 years 5-15 years ≥16 years p value1 p value2
n = 581 n = 44 n = 311 n = 226
Baseline       
Year3       
1993-1995 347 (59.7) 26 (7.5) 177 (51.0) 144 (41.5) 0.785 0.117
1997-1999 234 (40.3) 18 (17.7) 134 (57.3) 82 (35.0)   
Site4       
Ho Chi Minh City 350 (60.2) 24 (6.9) 136 (38.9) 190 (54.3) 0.177 <0.001
Dong Thap 231 (39.8) 20 (8.7) 175 (75.6) 36 (15.6)   
Male sex 296 (50.9) 28 (63.6) 168 (53.8) 100 (45.3) 0.230 0.010
Days ill prior to admission5 8 (6–11) 7 (6–10) 7 (6–10) 9 (7–14) 0.813 <0.001
Signs & symptoms       
Abdominal pain 178 (30.6) 9 (20.5) 129 (41.5) 40 (17.7) 0.007 <0.001
Constipation 134 (23.1) 10 (22.7) 107 (34.4) 17 (7.5) 0.123 <0.001
Diarrhoea 321 (55.2) 26 (59.1) 177 (56.9) 118 (52.2) 0.785 0.240
Vomiting 116 (20) 5 (11.4) 75 (24.1) 36 (15.9) 0.081 0.052
Cough 131 (22.5) 15 (34.1) 79 (25.4) 37 (16.4) 0.221 0.004
Headache 220 (37.9) 5 (11.4) 117 (37.6) 98 (43.4) <0.001 0.029
Temperature >40°C 318 (54.7) 27 (61.4) 180 (58.6) 111 (53.1) 0.730 0.175
6SBP <90 mmHg 25 (4.3) 2 (4.5) 14 (4.5) 9 (4.0) 1.000 0.761
Hepatomegaly 303 (52.2) 31 (70.5) 222 (71.4) 50 (22.1) 0.899 <0.001
Jaundice 17 (2.9) 0 (0) 11 (3.5) 6 (2.7) 0.372 0.757
Splenomegaly 101 (17.4) 10 (22.7) 72 (23.2) 19 (8.4) 0.950 <0.001
Rash 15 (2.6) 1 (2.3) 10 (3.2) 4 (1.8) 1.000 0.426
Laboratory       
7Haematocrit <30% 72 (12.4) 7 (18.4) 52 (17.4) 13 (7.2) 0.875 0.001
8White cell count <4×109/L 40 (6.9) 2 (4.5) 19 (6.1) 19 (8.4) 1.000 0.251
8White cell count > 15×109/L 11 (1.9) 2 (4.5) 6 (1.9) 3 (1.3) 0.261 0.541
9Platelet count <100×109/L 27 (4.6) 2 (5.7) 13 (5.3) 12 (9.0) 1.000 0.165
10SGOT >200 IU/L 63 (10.8) 3 (21.4) 43 (32.8) 17 (22.7) 0.549 0.159
10SGPT >200 IU/L 44 (7.6) 0 (0) 26 (19.8) 18 (24.0) 0.075 0.286
Isolate       
Fully susceptible organism 75 (12.9) 4 (9.1) 30 (9.7) 41 (18.1) 1.000 0.003
MDR 469 (80.7) 39 (88.6) 261 (83.9) 169 (74.8) 0.510 0.004
Reduced susceptibility to FLQ 215 (37.0) 17 (38.6) 127 (40.8) 71 (31.4) 0.781 0.026
  1. 1Comparison of children < 5 years with children 5–15 years and 2 of children < 16 years with adults ≥ 16 years by chi square, Fisher’s exact or Mann–Whitney U test as appropriate.
  2. 3Denominators for age groups are the total for each period.
  3. 4Denominators for age groups are the total for each site.
  4. 5median (IQR).
  5. 6 SBP – systolic blood pressure.
  6. 7n = 518.
  7. 8n = 580.
  8. 9n = 414.
  9. 10n = 220.
  10. FLQ: Fluoroquinolone.