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Table 2 ALT elevation by HBsAg status in early adult life, comparing all HBsAg + cases vs a matched sample of twice as many HBsAg- controls 1986–90 births tested in 2007–08; analyses ignore vaccination status

From: Efficacy and effectiveness of infant vaccination against chronic hepatitis B in the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (1986–90) and in the nationwide immunisation program

  HBsAg + cases (n = 218) HBsAg- controls (n = 472) Odds ratio*
ALT category*
Below control mean 76 (34.9%) 288 (61.0%) 1
Mean to ULN 115 (52.8%) 173 (36.7%) 2.5
ALT 1-2x ULN 18 ( 8.3%) 10 ( 2.1%) 6.8
ALT >2x ULN 9 ( 4.1%) 1 ( 0.2%) 34.1
  1. p (trend) <0.0001.
  2. *In HBsAg- controls, mean ALT is 16 IU/L and upper limit of normal (ULN) is 35 IU/L.