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Table 3 Multivariate analysis of factors associated with risk of hearing loss among patients treated for MDR-TB

From: Successful MDR-TB treatment regimens including Amikacin are associated with high rates of hearing loss

  Hearing loss (diagnosed clinically and through audiometry) aOR (95% CI) Hearing loss confirmed by audiometry aOR (95% CI) Hearing loss diagnosed clinically aOR (95% CI)
Age category in years 15 – 29 years 1.00 1.00 1.00
30 – 39 years 3.8 (1.46 – 9.88) 2.88 (0.96 – 8.63) 4.89 (1.26 – 18.97)
40 – 49 years 5.21 (1.93 – 14.04) 4.49 (1.44 – 14.00) 5.57 (1.39 – 22.36)
≥ 50 years 2.78 (0.83 – 9.34) 1.99 (0.46 – 7.87) 4.12 (0.83 – 20.51)
Sex Female 1.00 1.00 1.00
Male 0.72 (0.46 – 1.37) 0.78 (0.467 – 1.30) 0.64 (0.37 – 1.11)
HIV status HIV infection 1.32 (0.83 – 2.12) 1.53 (0.89 – 2.62) 1.13 (0.62 – 2.06)
TB treatment history Never treated for TB before 1.00 1.00 1.00
New TB regimen 1.24 (0.51 – 3.04) 1.01 (0.38 – 3.02) 1.47 (0.46 – 4.66)
Retreatment regimen 1.64 (0.69 – 3.91) 1.63 (0.60 – 4.36) 1.56 (0.51 – 4.78)
*Treated for MDR–TB Predicts outcome perfectly Predicts outcome perfectly Predicts outcome perfectly
Mean creatinine clearance per month in millilitre [mL]/minute > 60 mL/minute 1.00 1.00 1.00
40 – 60 mL/minute 1.48 (1.05 – 2.09) 1.07 (0.50 – 2.28) 1.27 (0.54 – 2.98)
20 – 40 mL/minute 1.81 (0.87 – 3.75) 3.35 (1.07 – 10.53) 1.19 (0.29 – 4.82)
< 20 mL/minute 1.51 (0.67 – 3.36) 1.52 (0.34 – 6.71) 1.18 (0.25 – 5.40)
£Duration of amikacin treatment in months 1.98 (1.86 – 2.12) 1.85 (0.94 – 3.99) 1.93 (0.89 – 3.97)
¥Mean dose of amikacin per kilogram per month 1.15 (1.04 – 1.28) 1.11 (1.00 – 1.23) 1.18 (1.04 – 1.33)
Interaction between the duration of amikacin treatment and amikacin dose 1.23 (1.11 – 1.35)   
  1. *Previous history of MDR–TB treatment before enrolment in the study, ¥aOR of amikacin dose indicates the increasing risk of ototoxicity per mg/kg/month, £aOR of duration of amikacin treatment indicates the risk of ototoxicity per month.