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Table 5 Comparison between pathogen-targeted treatment and empirical treatment

From: Validation of sputum Gram stain for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia: a prospective observational study

  Pathogen-targeted treatment Empirical treatment p value
n = 172 n = 498  
Patient background    
Age, median (IQR), y 80 (72–88) 76 (63–85) 0.064
Male, n (%) 90 (52.3) 340 (68.3) <0.001
Comorbid conditions, n (%) 163 (94.8) 472 (94.8) 0.157
CAP, n (%) 100 (58.1) 228 (45.8) 0.005
Previous antibiotics treatment, n (%) 14 (8.1) 83 (16.7) 0.006
Immunosuppressed, n (%) 8 (4.7) 32 (6.4) 0.40
Suspected aspiration, n (%) 43 (25.0) 203 (40.8) <0.001
Severity scores    
PSI score, median (IQR) 108 (89–128) 112 (90–142) 0.012
PSI class, median (IQR) 4 (3–4) 4 (4–5) 0.002
Clinical outcomes    
Initial treatment failure, n (%) 13 (7.6) 61 (12.2) 0.091
Antibiotics adverse events, n (%) 5 (2.9) 35 (7.0) 0.049
ICU admission, n (%) 12 (7.0) 69 (13.9) 0.017
Length of intravenous treatment, median(IQR) 8 (6–9) 9 (7–13) <0.001
Length of hospital stay, median (IQR) 9 (7–13) 11 (8–21) <0.001
In-hospital mortality, n (%) 14 (8.1) 45 (9.0) 0.72