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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with CAP and HCAP

From: Validation of sputum Gram stain for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia: a prospective observational study

  All patients CAP HCAP
n = 670 n = 328 n = 342
Patient background    
Age, median (IQR) 77 (65–80) 75 (59–83) 80 (72–87)
Male, n (%) 430 (64.2) 212 (64.6) 218 (63.7)
Comorbid conditions, n (%) 635 (94.8) 296 (90.2) 339 (99.1)
Previous antibiotics treatment, n (%) 97 (14.5) 34 (10.4) 63 (18.4)
Immunosuppressed, n (%) 40 (6.0) 19 (5.8) 21 (6.1)
Suspected aspiration, n (%) 246 (36.7) 50 (15.2) 196 (57.3)
Severity scores    
  PSI score, median (IQR) 110 (89–140) 96 (73–120) 125 (104–153)
  PSI class, median (IQR) 4 (3–5) 4 (3–4) 4 (4–5)
Clinical outcomes    
Initial treatment failure, n (%) 78 (11.6) 28 (8.5) 50 (14.6)
Antibiotics adverse effect, n (%) 40 (6.0) 19 (5.8) 21 (6.1)
ICU admission, n (%) 81 (12.1) 41 (12.5) 40 (11.7)
Length of antibiotic treatment, median (IQR) 8 (6–11) 7 (6–10) 9 (7–13)
Length of hospital stay, median (IQR) 11 (8–19) 9 (7–16) 12 (9–22)
In-hospital mortality, n (%) 59 (8.8) 19 (5.8) 30 (8.8)
Pathogen identified, n (%) 417 (62.2) 206 (62.8) 211 (61.7)
Streptococcus pneumoniae, n (%) 139 (20.7) 76 (23.2) 63 (18.4)
Haemophilus influenzae, n (%) 122 (18.2) 61 (18.6) 61 (17.8)
Moraxella catarrhalis, n (%) 41 (6.1) 20 (6.1) 21 (6.1)
Klebsiella pneumoniae, n (%) 43 (6.4) 11 (3.4) 32 (9.4)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, n (%) 29 (4.3) 12 (3.7) 17 (5.0)
Staphylococcus aureus, n (%) 11 (1.6) 2 (0.6) 9 (2.6)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, n (%) 10 (1.5) 9 (2.7) 1 (0.3)
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, n (%) 8 (1.2) 7 (1.0) 1 (0.3)
Legionella pneumophila, n (%) 2 (0.3) 0 2 (0.6)