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Table 1 Blended motivational interviewing (MI) and problem solving therapy (PST) intervention

From: Efficacy of an alcohol-focused intervention for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV treatment outcomes – a randomised controlled trial protocol

  Summary of blended MI and PST sessions and objectives
Session 1, Week 1 45 minutes • Conduct screening/assessment of alcohol use
• Provide feedback on results of screening/assessment
• Increase knowledge of how alcohol use impacts on course of HIV
• Use MI to build rapport and develop readiness to change
Assess readiness to change (using readiness ruler)
Assess pros and cons of change (Decision-balance exercise)
Use MI to try and shift participant and elicit a commitment to change
Session 2, Week 1 Patient check-in (using MI)
50 minutes • Build the Rationale for PST
  • Explain the structure of PST
  • Explain the link between problems and alcohol use, and the rationale for PST
  • Establish positive problem orientation
  • Describe the steps of PST
  • Build the rationale for activity scheduling
  • Describe the steps of Problem Solving
  • First Problem Solving Session with counsellor (using the steps) and describe homework
Session 3, Week 2 50 minutes • Patient check-in (using MI)
• Review homework from previous week and challenges/difficulties
Elicit positive change talk and affirm commitment to change using MI techniques
Review PST steps and affirm attempts to change
• Explain what can be done about problems that are not important (coping with negative thoughts)
  • Second Problem Solving Session with counsellor and an exercise
Session 4 Week 2 45 minutes • Review practice exercises from session 3
• Explain what can be done about problems that are important but cannot be solved 5 min (advancing the process of acceptance)
• Third Problem Solving Session with counsellor and recap
  • Elicit positive change talk and affirm commitment to change using MI techniques