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Table 1 Factors associated with smoking status in a cross-sectional study, College Park, MD, n = 40

From: Association between cigarette smoking and the vaginal microbiota: a pilot study

  Non-smokers* Smokers P value**
  n % n %  
Vaginal community state type (CST)§      0.04
  CST I, L. crispatus-dominated 13 65.0 6 30.0  
  CST III, L. iners-dominated 4 20.0 4 20.0  
  CST IV, Lactobacillus-deficient 3 15.0 10 50.0  
Nugent Gram stain score      0.02
  0-3 17 85.0 10 50.0  
  4-6 2 10.0 2 10.0  
  7-10 1 5.0 8 40.0  
Vaginal pH      0.13
  <=4 10 50.0 4 20.0  
  4.1-5.5 1 5.0 2 10.0  
  4.6-5.0 4 20.0 3 15.0  
  > = 5.1 5 25.0 11 55.0  
Age      <0.01
  18-28 17 85.0 5 25.0  
  29-39 1 5.0 7 35.0  
  40-45 2 10.0 8 40.0  
Ethnicity      0.16
  African-American 5 25.0 10 50.0  
  Asian/Pacific islander 3 15.0 1 5.0  
  Hispanic 3 15.0 0 0.0  
  Multi-racial 1 5.0 3 15.0  
  White 8 40.0 6 30.0  
Marital status      0.09
  Never married 17 85.0 10 50.0  
  Married 2 10.0 4 20.0  
  Separated, divorced, widowed 1 5.0 5 25.0  
  Other 0 0.0 1 5.0  
Education, years      0.06
  12 0 0.0 5 25.0  
  13-16 18 90.0 13 65.0  
  > = 17 2 10.0 2 10.0  
Biomarkers of smoking      
  Cotinine, ng/ml      <0.01
  0-10 1 5.0 0 0.0  
  11-30 17 85.0 0 0.0  
  31-100 2 10.0 0 0.0  
  101-200 - - - -  
  201-500 - - - -  
  501-1000 0 0.0 2 10.0  
  >1000 0 0.0 18 90.0  
  Carbon monoxide exhalation, ppm      <0.01
  0-7 20 100.0 0 0.0  
  8-10 0 0.0 11 55.0  
  11+ 0 0.0 9 45.0  
Self-reported factors      
  Number of cigarettes per day      <0.01
  None 20 100.0 0 0.0  
  1-10 0 0.0 11 55.0  
  11-20 0 0.0 9 45.0  
  Symptoms in 24 hours prior to visit      
  Odor 5 25.0 3 15.0 0.70
  Irritation 0 0.0 0 0.0 -
  Itching 0 0.0 0 0.0 -
  Burning 0 0.0 0 0.0 -
  Pain on urination 0 0.0 0 0.0 -
  Discharge 5 25.0 4 20.0 >0.99
  Diagnoses in the prior 2 months      
  None 19 95.0 17 94.4 0.73
  Bacterial vaginosis 0 0.0 1 5.6  
  Trichomonas vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis 1 5.0 0 0.0  
  Number of male sex partners in the prior 2 months      0.63
  0 5 26.3 4 21.1  
  1 11 57.9 14 73.7  
  2-3 3 15.8 1 5.3  
  Number of female sex partners in the prior 2 months      0.73
  0 16 94.1 14 93.3  
  1 1 5.9 1 6.7  
  Lifetime number of sex partners      <0.01
  0-4 8 40 2 11.1  
  5-7 9 45 1 5.6  
  8+ 3 15 15 83.3  
  Hormonal contraception (HC)      0.19
  Other, non-HC 6 33.3 8 57.1  
  Oral contraceptive pill 11 61.1 4 28.6  
  Injectable 1 5.6 2 14.3  
  Frequency of vaginal douching in prior 2 months      0.06
  None 18 90.0 12 63.2  
  Every now and then 0 0.0 1 5.3  
  1–2 times per month 1 5.0 5 26.3  
  1 time per week 1 5.0 0 0.0  
  More than one time per week 0 0.0 1 5.3  
  Sexual activity in prior 24 hours      0.34
  No vaginal intercourse 15 75.0 10 50.0  
  Vaginal intercourse without a condom 3 15.0 6 30.0  
  Vaginal intercourse with a condom 2 10.0 4 20.0  
  Menstrual hygiene in prior 24 hours      >0.99
  Sanitary napkin, no tampon 11 57.9 11 64.7  
  Sanitary napkin only 2 10.5 1 5.9  
  Tampon only 4 21.1 4 23.5  
  Tampon and sanitary napkin 2 10.5 1 5.9  
  1. §CST defined by Ravel et al.44
  2. *Non-smoker defined by self-report and 0–200 ng/ml on saliva cotinine test (NicAlert®) and 0–7 ppm on carbon monoxide exhalation (ppm), Bedfont Micro Smokerlyzer®.
  3. **P- values determined by Fisher's exact test.
  4. CarePlan® VpH Test Glove.