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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Significance of serum procalcitonin as biomarker for detection of bacterial peritonitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year, country Design Mean age (years)
Case/control
Patient group Case/control Outcomes definition Biomarkers tested Cut-off# Sensitivity, specificity TP(n) FP(n) FN(n) TN(n) PCT testing assays (FAS of PCT assays)
Cekin, 2013 [21] Retrospective 63.4 Cirrhotic 59/24 SBP Serum PCT 0.42 78%, 75% 46 6 13 18 ECLIA (0.5 ng/ml)
Turkey
Connert, 2003 [25] Prospective 57 Cirrhotic 19/81 SBP Serum PCT 0.615 94.7%, 70.4% 18 24 1 57 LUMI test (0.07 ng/ml)
Germany
Guz, 2006 [17], Prospective 46.6 PD 21*/35 PDRP Serum PCT 0.5 62%, 94% 13 2 8 33 LUMI test (0.02 ng/ml)
Turkey Serum PCT 0.75 43%, 98% 9 1 12 34
Serum PCT 1.5 38%, 99% 8 0 13 35
Serum CRP 6 95%, 67% 20 12 1 23
Lai, 2013 [27] Retrospective 58.2/55.9 Cirrhotic 45/45 SBP Serum PCT 0.5 83%, 81% 37 9 8 36 ECLIA (0.5 ng/ml)
China Serum CRP 10 75%, 63% 34 17 11 28
Lam, 2008 [18], Prospective 63.8 PD 35/165 PDRP Serum PCT 0.5 80%, 92% 28 13 7 152 LUMI test (0.06 ng/ml)
Hong Kong
Liu, 2006 [31] Retrospective 52/42 Cirrhotic 17/20 SBP Serum PCT 0.5 100%, 100% 17 0 0 20 Semi-quantitative PCT-Q (0.5 ng/ml)
China
Liu, 2012 [32] Retrospective 45.8/43.8 Cirrhotic 55/45 SBP Serum PCT 0.5 91%, 100% 50 0 5 45 Semi-quantitative PCT-Q (0.5 ng/ml)
China
Öztürk, 2010 [20] Retrospective 49.0/44.8 PD 50/50 PDRP Serum PCT 0.5 42%, 84% 21 8 29 42 Semi-quantitative PCT-Q (0.5 ng/ml)
Turkey Serum PCT 2 14%, 100% 7 0 43 50
Serum CRP 50 40%, 100% 20 0 30 50
Serum CRP 8 90%, 11.9% 45 44 5 6
Spahr, 2001 [22], Prospective 58.1/57.9 Cirrhotic 10/10 SBP Serum PCT 0.615 50%, 90% 5 1 5 9 LUMI test (0.07 ng/ml)
Switzerland Ascitic PCT 0.5 30%, 100% 3 0 7 10
Viallon, 2000 [23] Prospective 58.8/57.6 Cirrhotic 21/40 SBP Serum PCT 0.76 95%, 98% 20 1 1 39 LUMI test (0.07 ng/ml)
France Serum CRP 80 62%, 92% 13 3 8 37
Ascitic PCT 0.3 95%, 85% 20 6 1 34
Wu, 2014 [33] Retrospective 50.8/53.0 ESLD 178/184 SBP Serum PCT 0.443 84.3%, 92.7% 150 14 28 170 Immunoluminometric assay (0.1 ng/ml)
China Serum PCT 0.462 83.7%, 94.9% 149 10 29 174
Serum PCT 0.500 81.0%, 96.1% 144 7 34 177
Xie, 2014 [34] Retrospective 28-71 Cirrhotic 56/36 SBP Serum PCT 0.5 89.3%, 94.4% 50 2 6 34 ECLIA (0.5 ng/ml)
China Ascitic PCT 0.5 71.4%, 100% 40 0 16 36
Yang, 2007 [28] Retrospective 42.4/43.4 Cirrhotic 97/86 SBP Ascitic PCT 10 92.8%, 96.5% 90 3 7 83 Immunoluminometric assay (0.1 ng/ml)
China
Yilmaz, 2007 [19] Retrospective 51.3/50.7 PD 20/20 PDRP Serum PCT 0.5 70%, 100% 14 0 6 20 Semi-quantitative PCT-Q (0.5 ng/ml)
Turkey Serum CRP 8 100%, 55% 20 9 0 11
Yuan, 2013 [24] Retrospective 55.9/54.8 CSHB 42/42 SBP Serum PCT 0.48 95%, 79% 40 9 2 33 Automated Immunoanalysis (0.04 ng/ml)
China Serum PCT 0.67 36%, 98% 15 1 27 41
Serum CRP 11.6 86%, 69% 36 13 6 29
Serum CRP 16.1 64%, 95% 27 2 15 40
Zhang, 2004 [29] Retrospective 51.4 Cirrhotic 41/21 SBP Serum PCT 13.7 87.8%, 100% 36 0 5 21 Immunoluminometric assay (0.1 ng/ml)
China Ascitic PCT 9.5 70.7%, 80.9% 29 4 12 17
Zhang, 2010 [30] Retrospective 58.0 Cirrhotic 34/39 SBP Serum PCT 2 79.4%, 89.7% 27 4 7 35 Semi-quantitative PCT-Q (0.5 ng/ml)
China Serum CRP 8 55.2%, 86.7% 19 5 15 34
Zhang, 2003 [26] Retrospective 48.6 Cirrhotic 38/51 SBP Serum PCT 10 84.2%, 94.1% 32 3 6 48 Semi-quantitative PCT-Q (0.5 ng/ml)
China
  1. Note: PD peritoneal dialysis, PDRP peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, FAS functional assay sensitivities, PCT Procalcitonin, CRP C-reactive protein, SBP Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, ECLIA electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, CSHB Chronic severe hepatitis, ESLD end-stage liver disease.
  2. #PCT, ng/ml; CRP, mg/l, *16 PD patients had 21 episodes of PD peritonitis during the study period.