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Table 3 Univariable risk factor analysis for cholera compared to shigellosis among patients ≥ 5 years old hospitalized for diarrhea, icddr,b hospitals, Bangladesh, 2000–2008

From: Risk factors for diarrhea hospitalization in Bangladesh, 2000–2008: a case-case study of cholera and shigellosis

  Rural univariable Urban univariable
(n = 1,507) (n = 2,203)
Cholera/Total (%) RR 95% CI Cholera/Total (%) RR 95% CI
Sociodemographic       
Age (10 yr. intervals) - 0.94 (0.92-0.95) - 0.97 (0.96-0.98)
Female sex 588/845 (70) 0.98 (0.92-1.05) 891/969 (92) 1.01 (0.98-1.04)
No. household members - 1.03 (1.01-1.04) - 1 (1.00-1.00)
Education a,b       
  None 782/1095 (71) 1 - 1609/1743 (92) 1 -
  1-5 years 181/268 (68) 0.95 (0.86-1.04) 210/232 (91) 0.98 (0.94-1.02)
  6-9 years 84/120 (70) 0.98 (0.87-1.11) 135/151 (89) 0.97 (0.92-1.02)
  >9 years 11/24 (46) 0.64 (0.41-0.99) 60/77 (78) 0.84 (0.75-0.95)
Household income (USD/mo.) c       
  >84 416/647 (64) 1 - 789/882 (89) 1 -
  50-84 494/657 (75) 1.17 (1.09-1.26) 780/833 (94) 1.05 (1.02-1.08)
  34-49 127/168 (76) 1.18 (1.06-1.30) 273/302 (90) 1.01 (0.97-1.06)
  ≤34 21/35 (60) 0.93 (0.71-1.23) 172/186 (92) 1.03 (0.99-1.08)
Residence in a slum - -   342/367 (93) 1.02 (0.99-1.06)
Homeownership 1045/1480 (71) 1.41 (0.96-2.08) 174/202 (86) 0.94 (0.88-0.99)
Cement floor in home 70/122 (57) 0.80 (0.69-0.94) 1555/1714 (91) 0.97 (0.94-0.99)
Sanitation & Water       
Improved toilet facilities 78/122 (64) 0.90 (0.79-1.04) 1336/1480 (90) 0.96 (0.94-0.99)
Dist. to drinking water (10 m increments) - 1.01 (1.00-1.01) - 1 (1.00-1.01)
Source of water       
  Tap 3/3 (100) 1.50 (1.34-1.67) 1784/1959 (91) 0.96 (0.93-1.00)
  Tube well 108/162 (67) 1 - 210/222 (95) 1 -
  Surfaced 947/1342 (71) 1.06 (0.94-1.19) 18/19 (95) 1.00 (0.90-1.12)
Drinking water treatment       
  None 1000/1426 (70) 1 - 1312/1416 (93) 1 -
  Boiling 8/15 (53) 0.76 (0.47-1.22) 686/770 (89) 0.96 (0.93-0.99)
  Other 50/66 (76) 1.08 (0.94-1.24) 16/17 (94) 1.02 (0.90-1.15)
Other potential correlates       
Distance to hospital (km) - 1.02 (1.01-1.02) - 1 (1.00-1.00)
Family member with diarrhea in past week 162/194 (84) 1.22 (1.14-1.32) 316/326 (97) 1.07 (1.05-1.10)
  1. aEducation of patient for those ≥15 years of age; education of mother for those <15 years old.
  2. bStatistical evidence of a decreasing trend among urban residents (P = 0.002).
  3. cStatistical evidence of an increasing trend among rural residents (P = 0.003).
  4. dWater from rivers, ponds, and ditches was categorized as surface water.