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Table 2 Characteristics and stool microscopic examination findings among individuals of TS gastroenteritis with diarrhea patients negative for TS in urban Dhaka (2000–2012)

From: Gastroenteritis due to typhoidal Salmonella: a decade of observation at an urban and a rural diarrheal disease hospital in Bangladesh

Characteristic TS n = 77 (%) Diarrhea patients negative for TS n = 231 (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Male sex 43 (56) 129 (56) 1.00 (0.58, 1.74) 0.8 -
Age stratum     -
0-14 years 39 (51) 117 (51) 1.00 (0.58, 1.73) 0.8 -
15 years and above 38 (49) 114 (49) - -
Maternal illiteracy 21/39 (54) 35/117 (30) 2.73 (1.22, 6.15) 0.012 -
Paternal illiteracy 19/39 (49) 40/117 (34) 1.83 (0.82, 4.07) 0.1 -
Poor socio-economic status (median monthly family income < US$115) 46 (60) 119 (52) 1.40 (0.80, 2.44) 0.2 -
Use of non-sanitary toilet 23 (30) 0 (0) - -
H/o abdominal pain 35 (46) 100 (43) 1.09 (0.63, 1.89) 0.8 -
H/o vomiting in the last 24 hours 63 (82) 164 (71) 1.84 (0.93, 3.70) 0.085 -
Fever (Temperature ≥37.8°C) 13 (17) 9 (4) 5.01 (1.90, 13.41) <0.001 5.86 (2.16, 15.94) 0.001
Watery stool (lack of mucus/blood) 74 (96) 219 (95) 1.35 (0.34, 6.21) 0.7 -
Dehydration (moderate/severe) 52 (68) 149 (65) 1.14 (0.64, 2.06) 0.7 -
Duration of diarrhea (>1 day) 50 (65) 105 (46) 2.22 (1.26, 3.93) 0.004 1.27 (0.66, 2.46) 0.5
Hospital stay of ≥24 hours 31 (40) 84 (36) 1.18 (0.67, 2.07) 0.6 -
Use of IV rehydration 19 (25) 92 (40) 0.49 (0.27, 0.92) 0.023 0.72 (0.36, 1.46) 0.368
Use of antimicrobial at home 58 (75) 85 (37) 5.24 (2.82, 9.81) <0.001 5.08 (2.60, 9.90) <0.001
Wasting (<5 years) 13/30 (43) 22/103 (21) 2.82 (1.09, 7.27) 0.030 -
Stunting (<5 years) 16/30 (53) 26/103 (25) 3.16 (1.27, 7.90) 0.011 -
Underweight (<5 years) 21/30 (70) 34/103 (33) 4.74 (1.82, 12.62) 0.006 -
Fecal red blood cell/hpf (1 to >50) 33 (43) 67 (29) 1.84 (1.04, 3.24) 0.035 2.53 (1.38, 4.64) 0.003
Fecal leukocytes/hpf (11 to >50) 37 (48) 96 (42) 1.30 (0.75, 2.26) 0.3 -
Fecal macrophage/hpf (1 to 10) 22 (29) 45 (20) 1.65 (0.88, 3.11) 0.1 -