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Table 3 CD4 + T-cell responses in terms of different immune marker expression profiles

From: Superior antigen-specific CD4+T-cell response with AS03-adjuvantation of a trivalent influenza vaccine in a randomised trial of adults aged 65 and older

Immune-related marker expression (+/-) Geometric mean frequenciesa(percentages relative to totals) of CD4+T cells producing immune-related markers/106CD4+T cellsb
IFN-γ TNF-α IL-2 CD40L Day 0 Day 21 Day 42 Day 180
     TIV/AS03(≥65)    
+ + + + 490 (44) 1075 (31) 937 (37) 670 (37)
+ - + + 112 (10) 441 (13) 327 (13) 213 (12)
- + + + 171 (15) 425 (12) 355 (14) 284 (16)
- - + + 114 (10) 356 (10) 308 (12) 172 (10)
+ + - + 27 (2) 179 (5) 108 (4) 40 (2)
+ - - + 26 (2) 270 (8) 134 (5) 62 (3)
- + - + 32 (3) 106 (3) 67 (3) 50 (3)
- - - + 85 (8) 259 (8) 139 (5) 178 (10)
+ + + - 19 (2) 61 (2) 48 (2) 54 (3)
+ - + - 6 (1) 35 (1) 17 (1) 13 (1)
- + + - 3 (0) 18 (1) 12 (0) 6 (0)
- - + - 8 (1) 38 (1) 28 (1) 11 (1)
+ + - - 4 (0) 28 (1) 17 (1) 12 (1)
+ - - - 23 (2) 149 (4) 61 (2) 20 (1)
- + - - 3 (0) 11 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0)
Total 1124 (100) 3451 (100) 2562 (100) 1788 (100)
     TIV(≥65)    
+ + + + 554 (45) 779 (33) 598 (38) 463 (34)
+ - + + 115 (9) 340 (15) 222 (14) 157 (12)
- + + + 187 (15) 327 (14) 229 (15) 209 (16)
- - + + 127 (10) 278 (12) 174 (11) 114 (8)
+ + - + 35 (3) 82 (3) 43 (3) 31 (2)
+ - - + 25 (2) 144 (6) 54 (3) 39 (3)
- + - + 51 (4) 49 (2) 44 (3) 37 (3)
- - - + 70 (6) 190 (8) 109 (7) 198 (15)
+ + + - 12 (1) 35 (1) 28 (2) 41 (3)
+ - + - 8 (1) 17 (1) 9 (1) 9 (1)
- + + - 4 (0) 12 (1) 8 (1) 6 (0)
- - + - 10 (1) 27 (1) 16 (1) 9 (1)
+ + - - 5 (0) 11 (0) 6 (0) 9 (1)
+ - - - 17 (1) 51 (2) 25 (2) 20 (2)
- + - - 3 (0) 4 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0)
Total 1222 (100) 2344 (100) 1568 (100) 1347 (100)
Immune-related marker expression (+/-) Geometric mean frequencies a (percentages relative to totals) of CD4 + T cells producing immune-related markers/10 6 CD4 + T cells b
IFN-γ TNF-α IL-2 CD40L Day 0 Day 21 Day 42 Day 180
     TIV(18–40)    
+ + + + 832 (42) 1160 (32) 1007 (36) 863 (34)
+ - + + 220 (11) 530 (14) 402 (14) 290 (11)
- + + + 239 (12) 347 (9) 283 (10) 265 (10)
- - + + 182 (9) 389 (11) 306 (11) 256 (10)
+ + - + 69 (4) 145 (4) 136 (5) 87 (3)
+ - - + 50 (3) 230 (6) 139 (5) 122 (5)
- + - + 56 (3) 101 (3) 87 (3) 53 (2)
- - - + 181 (9) 340 (9) 194 (7) 276 (11)
+ + + - 67 (3) 121 (3) 95 (3) 199 (8)
+ - + - 13 (1) 61 (2) 31 (1) 46 (2)
- + + - 7 (0) 19 (1) 11 (0) 7 (0)
- - + - 13 (1) 92 (3) 25 (1) 11 (0)
+ + - - 9 (0) 34 (1) 22 (1) 25 (1)
+ - - - 19 (1) 89 (2) 69 (2) 44 (2)
- + - - 4 (0) 8 (0) 5 (0) 4 (0)
Total 1961 (100) 3669 (100) 2814 (100) 2548 (100)
  1. aNote that the geometric mean frequencies are not adjusted (see Table 2).
  2. bAfter in vitro stimulation with split vaccine antigens from all three (pooled) strains.
  3. TIV, trivalent influenza vaccine; TIV/AS03, AS03-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine.