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Table 2 Influenza-specific CD4+ T-cell responses to vaccination

From: Superior antigen-specific CD4+T-cell response with AS03-adjuvantation of a trivalent influenza vaccine in a randomised trial of adults aged 65 and older

Day CD4+T cellsaproducing at least two different markers (CD40L, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ) / 106CD4+T cells
Adjusted geometric meanb(90% CI; N)
  TIV/AS03(≥65) TIV(≥65) TIV(18–40)
21 3634 (3134–4214; N = 62) 2222 (1954–2527; N = 58) 2683 (2425–2969; N = 43)
42 2873 (2523–3271; N = 61) 1688 (1523–1871; N = 60) 2217 (2001–2457; N = 44)
180 2234 (2011–2482; N = 60) 1601 (1443–1776; N = 60) 2265 (2108–2433; N = 42)
  Ratio (90% CI; p -value)
  TIV/AS03(≥65), TIV(≥65) TIV/AS03(≥65), TIV(18–40)
21 1.64 (1.35–1.99; p < 0.001)c 1.35 (1.13–1.62; p = 0.006)d
42 1.70 (1.44–2.00; p < 0.001) 1.30 (1.10–1.53; p = 0.011)
180 1.40 (1.21–1.61; p < 0.001) 0.99 (0.87–1.12; p = 0.860)
  1. aAfter in vitro stimulation with split vaccine antigens from all three (pooled) strains.
  2. bNote that in the ANCOVA model, only the CD4+ T-cell frequency post-vaccination was considered as a dependent variable. The pre-vaccination CD4+ T-cell frequency was considered as a covariate in the calculation of the adjusted geometric means.
  3. cPrimary study objective.
  4. dSecondary study objective. TIV/AS03: AS03-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine.