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Table 3 Hierarchical* multivariate analysis of the association of tuberculosis by HIV status

From: Factors associated with tuberculosis by HIV status in the Brazilian national surveillance system: a cross sectional study

  Characteristics OR** 95%CI***
  Gender Female Ref.  
Level 1   Male 1,06 1.03-1.10
  Age <20 years Ref.  
   20-39 years 4,82 4.34-5.36
   40-59 years 3,67 3.30-4.09
   ≥60 years 1.04 0.92-1.18
  Race White Ref.  
   Black 1.08 1.04-1.13
   Browns 0,77 0.75-0.80
   Other 0,66 0.57-0.77
  Schooling <4 years Ref.  
   4-7 years 1.23 1.19-1.28
   ≥ 8 years 0,96 0.92-1.00
  Area of residence Urban Ref.  
   Rural 0,44 0.41-0.48
Level 2   Periurban 0,66 0.61-0.77
  DOT**** No Ref.  
   Yes 0.65 0.98-1.12
  Institutionalization No Ref.  
   Yes 1.07 1.00-1.15
Level 3 Diabetes No Ref.  
   Yes 0.45 0.40-0.50
  Alcoholism No Ref.  
   Yes 1.04 0.99-1.09
Level 4 Type of entry New case Ref.  
   Relapse 2.23 1.00-4.94
   Return after default 2.65 1.13-6.25
   Unknown 1 -
   Transferred 0.79 0.35-1.81
  Tuberculin skin test Negative Ref.  
   Positive 0.73 0.50-1.07
  TB form Pulmonary Ref.  
   Extra pulmonary 1.28 0.75-2.20
   Pulmonary + Extra pulmonary 2.80 1.56-5.02
  Smear Negative Ref.  
   Positive 0.55 0.32-0.95
  Histopathologic examination AFB***** positive Ref.  
   Suggestive 2.15 1.13-4.07
   Not suggestive 0.71 0.37-1.34
  X-Ray Negative Ref.  
   Suspicious of TB 0.62 0.35-1.09
Level 5 Outcome Cure Ref.  
   Default 2.79 2.45-3.18
   Death from TB 3.64 2.92-4.53
   Death from other causes 7.93 6.66-9.43
   MDR-TB 1.41 0.74-2.68
  1. *The multivariate analyses: step 1 (Gender + age + schooling + race + Area of residence); step 2 (variables retained from step 1 + Institutionalization + DOT); step 3 (variables retained from step 2 + Diabetes); step 4 (variables retained from step 3 + treatment type+ TB form + Tuberculin Skin Test + smear + + culture + histopathologic examination + X ray suspicious for TB); and step 5 (variables retained from step 4 + outcome). ** Adjusted odds ratio. ***CI: confidence interval. ****DOT: Directly Observed Therapy. *****AFB: acid-fast bacilli.