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Table 3 Comparison of means for clinical, Plasmodium parasitaemia, physical and cognitive parameters in helminth-infected and non-infected schoolchildren at baseline and the 5-month follow-up surveys, stratified by sex

From: Effect of deworming on school-aged children’s physical fitness, cognition and clinical parameters in a malaria-helminth co-endemic area of Côte d’Ivoire

Parameter    Baseline, mean Follow-up, mean Mean change (95% CI)
  Helminth infection N All Females Males All Females Males All Females Males
Weight (kg)§ Not infected 141 31.7 32.4 30.4 33.0 33.9 31.4 1.4 (1.0, 1.8) 1.6 (1.0, 2.1) 1.0 (0.3, 1.7)
S. mansoni (+) 44 31.8 33.0 31.2 33.4 34.9 32.6 1.6 (0.9, 2.2) 2.0 (1.0, 3.0) 1.4 (0.5, 2.3)
S. mansoni (++/+++) 34 33.1 35.5 32.5 35.2 39.1 34.2 2.1 (1.3, 2.8) 3.6 (1.2, 6.1)* 1.7 (1.0, 2.4)
Haemoglobin (g/l) Not infected 130 121.4 123.7 116.8 120.9 121.3 120.1 −0.5 (−3.0, 2.1) −2.3 (−5.4, 0.7) 3.4 (−1.2, 7.9)
Helminth# 89 119.0 119.7 118.8 118.6 122.1 117.3 −0.4 (−3.7, 2.8) 2.4 (−2.4, 7.2) −1.5 (−5.6, 2.6)
Plasmodium parasitaemia (log (parasites/μl of blood + 1)) Not infected 129 5.5 5.4 5.7 4.0 3.9 4.2 −1.5 (−2.1, −0.9)Δ −1.4 (−2.6, −0.3)Δ −1.5 (−2.3, −0.7)Δ
Helminth# 88 5.9 5.9 5.9 4.4 4.6 4.3 −1.5 (−2.3, −0.8)Δ −1.6 (−2.4, −0.8)Δ −1.3 (−3.1, 0.5)
VO2 max (ml kg−1 min−1) Not infected 141 48.8 47.7 50.9 48.7 46.9 52.0 −0.1 (−0.8, −0.6) −0.8 (−1.7, 0.1) 1.2 (0.0, 2.3)
S. mansoni (+) 44 50.3 48.1 51.3 49.4 48.0 50.0 −0.9 (−2.1, 0.3) −0.1 (−1.8, 1.6) −1.3 (−2.9, 0.4)*
S. mansoni (++/+++) 34 49.4 47.1 50.0 51.1 45.5 52.5 1.7 (0.2, 3.2)* −1.6 (−4.9, 1.7) 2.5 (0.9, 4.1)
Standing broad jump (cm) Not infected 141 130 128 135 143 141 146 13 (10, 15) 13 (10, 17) 12 (8, 15)
S. mansoni (+) 44 140 133 144 151 140 157 11 (7, 15) 7 (−0, 14) 13 (7, 18)
S. mansoni (++/+++) 34 146 134 149 158 148 161 12 (6, 19) 13 (−2, 29) 12 (5, 19)
Hand grip strength (kg) Not infected 130 16.8 16.7 16.8 17.9 17.6 18.5 1.1 (0.4, 1.8) 0.8 (−0.0, 1.7) 1.7 (0.3, 3.0)
Helminth# 89 17.7 17.1 18.0 18.8 17.9 19.1 1.0 (0.4, 2.0) 0.8 (−1.0, 2.7) 1.1 (−0.1, 2.3)
Digit span test (score range: 2–8)§ Not infected 130 4.5 4.5 4.4 5.2 5.1 5.4 0.8 (0.6, 0.9) 0.7 (0.5, 0.9) 0.9 (0.6, 1.3)
Helminth# 89 4.4 4.4 4.5 5.2 5.3 5.1 0.8 (0.5, 1.0) 1.0 (0.5, 1.4) 0.7 (0.3, 1.0)
Code transmission test (score range: 0–20) Not infected 81 16.2 16.0 16.7 16.2 16.4 15.6 −0.1 (−0.8, 0.7) 0.4 (−0.5, 1.2) −1.1 (−2.6, 0.4)
Helminth# 65 15.2 12.5 16.1 15.7 15.1 15.9 0.5 (−0.4, 1.3) 2.6 (0.7, 4.5)* −0.2 (−1.1, 0.7)
  1. (+) = light intensity infection, (++/+++) = moderate or heavy intensity infection.
  2. #Infected with any soil-transmitted helminth or Schistosoma species of any intensity.
  3. §Significant change (p < 0.05) between baseline and 5-month follow-up in all groups from paired t-test analysis.
  4. Significant change (p < 0.05) between baseline and 5-month follow-up for this sub-group from paired t-test analysis.
  5. ΔSignificant change (p < 0.05) between baseline and 5-month follow-up for this sub-group from Wilcoxon signed rank sum test analysis.
  6. *Significant difference in change between infected and non-infected in this sub-group from bivariate linear regression analysis.
  7. The study was carried out in Niablé, eastern Côte d’Ivoire between December 2012 and May 2013. Data from 219 children (112 girls, 107 boys) with complete baseline and end-of-study follow-up were considered.