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Table 2 Risk factors for carriage of H. influenzae associated with biofilm production

From: Non typable-Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation and acute otitis media

  No. of strains (%) Biofilm non-producer* (n = 110) Biofilm producer** (n = 106) P value OR
Age: n =216
< 12 months 79 (36.6%) 37 (46.8%) 42 (53.2%) 0.361  
> 12 months 137 (63.4%) 73 (53.3%) 64 (46.72%)
Types of daycare: n = 216
Daycare center 117 (54.2%) 61 (52.1%) 56 (47.9%) 0.616  
Home 49 (22.7%) 22 (44.9%) 27 (55.1%)
Nurse 50 (23.1%) 27 (54%) 23 (46%)
Association with Streptococcus pneumoniae : n = 216
Yes 97 (44.9%) 43 (44.3%) 54 (55.7%) 0.08  
No 119 (55.1%) 67 ( 56.3%) 52 (43.7%)
β-lactamase production: n = 216
Yes 37 (17.1%) 21 (56.80%) 16 (43.20%) 0.436  
No 179 (82.9%) 89 (49.72%) 90 (50.28%)
Penicillin-binding protein modification: resistance to amoxicillin: n =216
Yes 32 (14.8%) 22 (68.75%) 10 (31.25%) 0.029 2.4 [1.08;5.35]
No 184 (85.2%) 88 (47.83%) 96 (52.17%)
History of AOM: n =172
Yes 104 (60.5%) 54 (51.9%) 50 (48.1%) 0.168  
No 68 (39.5%) 28 (41.2%) 40 (58.8%)
Associated conjunctivitis: n = 214
Yes 54 (25.2%) 39 (72.2%) 15 (27.8%) <0.001 3.3 [1.66;6.38]
No 160 (74.8%) 71 (44.4%) 89 (55.6%)
Previous antimicrobial therapy (<3 months): n = 210
None 91 (43.3%) 43 (47.2%) 48 (52.8%) 0.716  
Amoxicillin 70 (33.3%) 37 (52.9%) 33 (47.1%)
3GC*** 49 (23.4%) 26 (53.1%) 23 (46.9%)
Pneumococcal vaccination: n = 216
Yes 211 (97.7%) 106 (50.2%) 105 (49.8%) 0.188  
No 5 (2.3%) 4 (80.0%) 1 (20.0%)  
  1. *No. of strains not producing biofilm.
  2. **No. of strains producing biofilm.
  3. ***3GC: third-generation cephalosporins.