Skip to main content

Table 1 Association of pathologic group and biofilm production by isolated H. influenzae strains

From: Non typable-Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation and acute otitis media

Groups Level of biofilm production Comparison between groups *p value OR [95% CI]
  Negative Moderate Strong Moderate + Strong Reference vs Group 1 Reference vs Group 2 Reference vs Group 3 Reference vs Group 4
Group MEF** n = 41 24 (58.5%) 8 (19.5%) 9 (22%) 17 (40.5%) 0.083 0.19 0.16 0.32
AOM treatment failure      2.16 [0.90;5.16] 1.78 [0.75;4.24] 1.86 [0.79;4.40] 0.64 [0.26;1.55]
NP group 1*** n = 43 17 (39.5%) 11 (25.6%) 15 (34.9%) 26 (60.5%)   0.66 0.73 0.006
Control (healthy children)       1.21 [0.51;2.86] 1.16 [0.49;2.73] 3.39 [1.41;8.15]
NP group 2*** n = 43 19 (44.2%) 18 (41.9%) 6 (13.9%) 24 (55.8%)    0.93 0.02
First AOM without conjunctivitis        0.96 [0.41;2.24] 2.8 [1.17;6.69]
NP group 3*** n = 45 19 (43.2%) 13 (29.5%) 12 (27.3%) 25 (56.8%)     0.015
Recurrent AOM without conjunctivitis         0.34 [0.14;0.82]
NP group 4*** n = 44 31 (68.9%) 9 (20%) 5 (11.1%) 14 (31.1.5%)     
AOM with conjunctivitis  
  1. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.
  2. *Risk for carrying (moderate + strong) an H. influenzae strain producing biofilm.
  3. **Strains isolated from MEF.
  4. ***Strains isolated from the nasopharynx.