IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL12p70 production in supernatant of microglia during 9 d in culture. Microglia were infected with HIV or not, and exposed to 20 nM RAL immediately afterwards (RAL, HIV + RAL), and a non-treated culture from the same source grown alongside (Control). Supernatants were withdrawn and cytokines measured by Mesoscale Discovery 7-plex pro-inflammatory cytokine kit. Plotted are concentrations (pg/mL) vs. Time after infection, separated by treatment group, error bars indicate standard deviation of biological triplicates, dotted horizontal line indicates detection limits. Based on Standard Least Squares linear regression, RAL-treatment in HIV-infection significantly reduced the secretion rate of IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α. In RAL-alone, there was higher TNF-α and IL-6 at day 8.