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Table 2 Factors associated with vanB VRE bacteraemia

From: Case-case-control study on factors associated with vanB vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible enterococcal bacteraemia

Factors associated with vanBVRE bacteraemia VRE cases (n = 116) Controls (n = 116) Univariable Multivariable
OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Age, median (IQR), years 60 (47–68) 58 (44–68) 1.01 0.99-1.02 0.481    
Female 47 (41) 53 (46) 0.81 0.48-1.36 0.432    
Transfer from another hospital 28 (24) 14 (12) 2.56 1.18-5.52 0.017    
Unit of admission         
  Non-haematology/oncology to read Non-haematology/oncology 55 (47) 49 (42) Reference    
  Haematology/
oncology
61 (53) 67 (58) 0 - -    
ICU admission in prior 30 days 39 (34) 13 (11) 6.57 2.97-14.55 <0.001    
CDS-VRE score, median (IQR) 1 (0–1.9) 0 (0–1.6) 1.36 1.02-1.80 0.036 1.70 1.05-2.77 0.032
Clostridium difficile toxin positive 5 (4) 1 (1) 5.00 0.58-42.80 0.142    
Infection(s) due to pathogens other than Enterococci 61 (53) 34 (29) 2.93 1.60-5.37 0.001 0.97 0.39-2.46 0.953
Gastrointestinal disease 54 (47) 38 (33) 2.00 1.10-3.64 0.024    
Liver disease 16 (14) 15 (13) 1.14 0.41-3.15 0.796    
Haematological malignancy 66 (57) 63 (54) 1.6 0.52-4.89 0.410 0.41 0.06-2.61 0.342
Bone marrow transplantation type
  Nil 97 (84) 100 (86) Reference Reference
  Autologous 3 (3) 7 (6) 0.33 0.07-1.65 0.178 0.27 0.03-2.22 0.221
  Allogeneic 16 (14) 9 (8) 2.40 0.85-6.81 0.100 2.79 0.57-13.66 0.206
Ceftriaxone days, median (IQR), days 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.09 0.98-1.22 0.130 1.16 0.91-1.48 0.234
Third generation cephalosporin days , median (IQR), daysa 0 (0–1) 0 (0–0.49) 1.04 0.95-1.13 0.439    
Fluoroquinolone days, median (IQR), daysb 1 (0–7.63) 0 (0–2.42) 1.07 1.01-1.12 0.016    
Metronidazole days, median (IQR), days 0 (0–1.78) 0 (0) 1.54 1.16-2.04 0.003 1.65 1.17-2.33 0.004
Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid days, median (IQR), days 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.02 0.92-1.13 0.674    
Piperacillin-tazobactam days, median (IQR), days 0 (0–2.18) 0 (0) 1.04 0.96-1.14 0.352    
Meropenem days, median (IQR), days 0 (0–5.94) 0 (0) 1.15 1.06-1.25 0.001    
Vancomycin days, median (IQR), days 2.58 (0–8) 0 (0–2.18) 1.10 1.04-1.17 0.002 1.04 0.95-1.15 0.401
Neutropenia days, median (IQR), days 1 (0–10) 0 (0–1) 1.08 1.03-1.14 0.003 1.04 0.96-1.11 0.341
Hypoalbuminaemia days, median (IQR), days 13 (7.5-20) 5.5 (2–14.5) 1.08 1.04-1.12 <0.001 0.97 0.91-1.04 0.435
Central line use 94 (81) 55 (47) 5.22 2.56-10.66 <0.001 3.06 0.94-9.99 0.063
Mechanical ventilation 29 (25) 7 (6) 5.40 2.08-14.02 0.001    
Urinary catheter 57 (49) 27 (23) 3.50 1.84-6.65 <0.001 2.86 1.09-7.53 0.033
Parenteral nutrition 28 (24) 8 (7) 3.86 1.68-8.86 0.001    
  1. Note:
  2. Data are number (%) of patients unless indicated otherwise.
  3. aThird generation cephalosporins include cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime.
  4. bFluoroquinolones include moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin.