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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of deaths caused by hand foot and mouth disease in Vietnam 2011

From: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children who died from hand, foot and mouth disease in Vietnam, 2011

Characteristic No. of cases/total (%)
Symptoms recorded at admission in terminal hospital  
  Fever 165/169 (98)
  Myoclonus 87/131 (66)
  Vomiting 70/131 (53)
  Oral ulcers 60/119 (50)
  Vesicular erythema 62/125 (50)
  Diarrhea 11/114 (10)
  Shock 74/169 (44)
  Respiratory failure/cyanosis 69/169 (41)
  Pulmonary edema 37/169 (22)
  Apnea /Dyspnea 14/169 (8)
Highest clinical grade recorded at admission in terminal hospital  
  1 10/158 (6)
  2a 53/158 (34)
  2b 26/158 (17)
  3 or 4 63/158 (40)
  Misdiagnosis 6/158 (4)
Laboratory results during hospitalization  
  White blood cell count > 16000/mm3* 106/142 (75)
  Blood sugar > 180 mg/dL* 76/142 (54)
  Severe Metabolic acidosis 69/140 (49)
  Troponin I (+) 63/142 (44)
  Platelet > 400,000/mm3* 57/142 (40)
EV test results  
  EV71 84/103 (82)
  EV 16/103 (16)
Main causes of death  
  Respiratory failure 123/150 (82)
  Prolonged shock 104/150 (69)
  Coma 83/150 (55)
  Ventricular fibrillation 11/150 (7)
  Others (heart failure, cerebral edema ect.) 17/150 (11)
Treatment  
Vasoactive drugs  
  Dobutamine 153/169 (91)
  Adrenaline 102/169 (60)
  Noradrenaline 51/169 (30)
  Dopamine 26/169 (15)
Intravenous immunoglobulin 159/169 (94)
Hemofiltration 35/169 (21)
  1. *Normal range:
  2. - White blood cell count (4,300-10,800/mm3).
  3. - Blood sugar (70–130 mg/dl).
  4. - Platelet (100,000-300,000/mm3).