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Table 5 Demographic and neurodevelopmental characteristics of survivors at follow-up

From: Invasive candidiasis in low birth weight preterm infants: risk factors, clinical course and outcome in a prospective multicenter study of cases and their matched controls

Characteristics frequency (%) or mean ± SD, where relevant Cases Controls Univariate odds ratiosa P value
N = 25 N = 76 [95% CI]
Corrected age at final follow-up (months) 20.4 ± 2.9 20.5 ± 3.5   0.94
Males 19 (76) 51 (67) 1.55 [0.55-4.37] 0.46
Gestational age (weeks) 25.4 ± 1.2 25.3 ± 1.5   0.77
Birth weight (g) 763 ± 151 785 ± 150   0.53
Any hearing deficitb 7 (28) 13 (18) 1.82 [0.63-5.26] 0.26
Deafness 7 (28) 5 (7) 5.37 [1.52-18.91] 0.01
Visual impairment 6 (24) 20 (26) 0.88 [0.31-4.53] 1.00
Blindness 1 (4) 1 (3) 3.08 [0.04- 248.49] 0.44
Severe CP 2 (8) 3 (4) 2.12 [0.33-13.45] 0.60
Moderate or severe CP 6 (24) 6 (8) 3.63 [0.86-15.33] 0.067
Mean PDIc 80.5 ± 17.9 82.0 ± 16.7   0.74
[Median (range)] [83.5 (49–107)] [84.5 (49–107)]   [0.71]
Mean MDIc 76.7 ± 20.5 82.1 ± 19.0   0.89
[Median (range)] [72 (49–111)] [81 (49–133)]   [0.23]
BSID-II <2 SD 13/23 (57) 23/70 (33) 2.66 [1.01-6.96] 0.044
NDId 15/25 (60) 25/76 (33) 3.06 [1.20-7.77] 0.017
  1. aOdds ratios were determined analysing the surviving cohort as unmatched cases and controls to maximize sample size and allow multivariable analysis of NDI.
  2. bDeafness or hearing impairment.
  3. cMDI and PDI Scores that were <50 were assigned a value of 49 to allow determination of means and medians.
  4. dRestricting analysis to only matched pairs, using conditional logistic regression, cases were still more likely to develop NDI than their matched controls (10/19 (53%) cases versus 11/38 (29%) controls; OR = 4.81 [1.32-17.56].