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Table 1 Study definitions

From: Invasive candidiasis in low birth weight preterm infants: risk factors, clinical course and outcome in a prospective multicenter study of cases and their matched controls



Congenital candidiasis

IC within the first 7 days of life

Severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)

Any IVH event ≥ grade 2

Definite CNS candidiasis

Positive CSF or brain culture or yeast forms on histopathology of brain

Probable CNS candidiasis

Positive blood culture for Candida plus at least one of:


CSF WBC count >25 x 106/L in a non-bloody CSF


CSF protein ≥2.0 g/L


CSF/serum glucose ratio <0.5


Head ultrasound compatible with CNS candidiasis

Cerebral palsy (CP)

A non-progressive disorder characterized by abnormal tone in one or more extremities and abnormal control of movement and posture

Moderate to severe CP

Not yet walking at assessment

Severe CP

Unable to sit


Visual acuity <20/200 in either eye

Visual impairment

Any visual deficit correctable with glasses


Hearing deficit requiring hearing aids or cochlear implants

Hearing impairment

Any hearing deficit not requiring hearing aids or implants

Neurodevelopmental impairment

Any of the following: blindness, deafness, moderate to severe cerebral palsy, or score <70 in PDI or MDI of the BSID-II

Candida infection contributing to death

Any of the following: death occurring within 48 hours of a positive culture of Candida from a sterile site, death occurring within 48 hours of commencing appropriate antifungal therapy, or documented microbiological or histopathological evidence of Candida infection in a normally sterile site at autopsy