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Table 1 Patient and hospital characteristics

From: Hospital days, hospitalization costs, and inpatient mortality among patients with mucormycosis: a retrospective analysis of US hospital discharge data

  Before propensity-score matching1 After propensity-score matching1
Characteristic Cases Non-Cases P-value3 Cases Non-Cases P-value3
N (unweighted) 1,120 29,759,178   1,084 3,252  
N (weighted) 5,515 146,295,097   5,346 15,999  
Sex (%)    < 0.001    0.7550
  Female 39.6% 53.2%   40.5% 41.0%  
  Male 60.4% 46.6%   59.5% 59.0%  
  Unknown 0.0% 0.3%   - -  
Age (%)       
  Mean (SD) 49.5 (20.0) 59.7 (21.4) < 0.001 49.6 (19.9) 49.7 (19.9) 0.9074
  < 44 33.1% 21.4%   33.0% 32.6%  
  45 to 64 43.6% 31.0%   43.5% 43.7%  
  ≥ 65 23.4% 47.6%   23.5% 23.7%  
Race (%)    < 0.001    0.8093
  White 53.6% 54.9%   53.3% 55.9%  
  African-American 10.5% 10.7%   10.7% 10.0%  
  Hispanic 13.5% 7.8%   13.6% 13.3%  
  Other/Unknown 22.4% 26.5%   22.4% 20.8%  
Primary expected payer (%)    < 0.001    0.7473
  Medicare 33.7% 51.1%   33.6% 31.2%  
  Medicaid 21.0% 11.2%   20.8% 20.8%  
  Private 37.4% 29.4%   37.8% 39.9%  
  Other/Unknown 8.0% 8.3%   7.8% 8.1%  
High-risk conditions2 (%)    < 0.001    0.5281
  (A) Severely immunocompromised 49.7% 6.2%   49.1% 49.0%  
  (C) Mildly/moderately immunocompromised 25.1% 45.5%   25.5% 23.8%  
  (B) Critically ill 20.0% 20.3%   20.0% 21.8%  
  (D) Major surgery or Pneumonia 5.3% 27.9%   5.5% 5.4%  
Number of Elixhauser comorbidities       
  Mean (SD) 2.7 (1.8) 2.4 (1.8) < 0.001 2.7 (1.8) 2.6 (1.7) 0.0340
  Median (IQR) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–3)   3 (1–4) 2 (1–4)  
Number of listed diagnoses       
  Mean (SD) 12.1 (4.8) 8.3 (4.3) < 0.001 12.2 (4.8) 9.2 (4.6) <0.001
  Median (IQR) 11 (9–15) 8 (5–10)   11 (9–15) 9 (6–12)  
Number of listed procedures       
  Mean (SD) 5.3 (4.5) 2 (2.3) < 0.001 5.3 (4.5) 2.5 (2.8) <0.001
  Median (IQR) 5 (2–8) 1 (0–3)   5 (2–8) 2 (1–3)  
Abdominal procedures or surgeries4 (%) 5.5% 12.0% < 0.001 5.4% 4.9% 0.5314
Geographic Region (%)    < 0.001    0.2629
  Northeast 15.4% 19.5%   15.4% 16.7%  
  Midwest 18.5% 23.6%   18.5% 16.1%  
  West 31.9% 18.2%   32.4% 33.3%  
  South 34.2% 38.7%   33.6% 33.9%  
Hospital location (%)    < 0.001    0.6274
  Urban 95.9% 86.9%   96.8% 97.0%  
  Rural 3.1% 12.7%   3.2% 3.0%  
  Missing 1.0% 0.5%   - -  
Hospital teaching status (%)    < 0.001    0.4091
  Teaching 72.6% 46.8%   73.1% 74.3%  
  Non-teaching 26.4% 52.8%   26.9% 25.7%  
  Missing 1.0% 0.5%   - -  
Hospital bed size (%)    < 0.001    0.0668
  Small (1–49 beds) 7.7% 12.2%   7.8% 6.6%  
  Medium (50–99 beds) 15.2% 23.7%   15.5% 13.9%  
  Large (≥ 100 beds) 76.1% 63.6%   76.6% 79.5%  
  Missing 1.0% 0.5%   - -  
  1. Source: HCUP 2003–2010.
  2. [1] Non-mucormycosis hospitalizations from hospitals with at least one mucormycosis patient were matched 3:1 to mucormycosis hospitalizations using a greedy 8 to 1 digit matching algorithm. This algorithm first matches on 8 digits of propensity score and then subsequently on 7 and so on.
  3. [2] All high-risk groups were mutually exclusive; ordered here by prevalence post-matching. Severely immunocompromised (A) conditions include leukemia/lymphoma/HSCT/BMT, chemotherapy, other immune disorders, solid organ transplant or long-term steroid use. Critically ill (B) conditions include trauma, septicemia, bacteremia, necrotizing fasciitis, intracranial hemorrhage and mechanical ventilation for 96+ hours. Mildly/moderately immunocompromised (C) conditions include ESRD/hemodialysis, lupus, malignant solid tumors, diabetic ketoacidosis, blood disorders, and diabetes. Major surgery or pneumonia (D) includes selected thoracic, cardiac, vascular, abdominal, peripheral, urology, and neurology surgeries, other major procedures, and pneumonia.
  4. [3] Significance was tested for proportions using the Rao-Scott Chi-Square Test. Continuous measures were tested using an independent sample t-test.
  5. [4] Abdominal procedures/surgeries include: ICD-9-CM 43.XX-50.XX, 51.2X, and 52.XX-54.XX, excluding 43.1X, 43.4X, 43.9X, 44.1X, 44.22, 44.43, 44.44, 44.49, 44.91, 45.1X-45.3X, 46.32, 46.32, 46.39, 48.2X, 48.3X, 50.1X, 50.9X, 52.0X, 52.1X, 52.4X, 52.9X, 54.22-54.29, 54.9X.