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Table 4 Cox proportional hazards multivariable model examining risk factors for recurrent CDI

From: Risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) hospitalization among hospitalized patients with an initial CDI episode: a retrospective cohort study

Patient characteristics Antimicrobials after iCDI treatment modeled as time dependent variables Antimicrobials after iCDI treatment modeled as time independent variables
Risk factor Hazard ratio 95% CI Hazard ratio 95% CI
At admission to the hospital     
  CDI case status     
  HO CDI Ref   Ref  
  COHCFA CDI 1.80 1.41-2.29 1.78 1.39-2.27
  CA CDI 1.30 0.95-1.80 1.25 0.91-1.72
Number of hospitalizations in previous 60 days     
  None Ref    
  1 1.25 0.97-1.61 1.27 0.99-1.64
  >1 1.40 1.04-1.89 1.46 1.08-1.96
  Age (per 1 year) 1.01 1.00-1.02 1.01 1.00-1.02
At the onset or during treatment of iCDI     
  Gastric acid suppression 1.36 1.00-1.85 1.40 1.03-1.90
  Cumulative fluoroquinolone exposurea 1.24 1.09-1.41 1.42 1.25-1.61
Following completion of iCDI treatment     
  High risk antimicrobialb 2.95c 2.25-3.86 1.86 1.42-2.42
  Fluoroquinolone 1.56c 1.63-2.08 0.86 0.64-1.15
  IV vancomycin 1.45c 1.09-1.92 1.05 0.80-1.39
  1. iCDI = initial episode of C. difficile infection.
  2. aCumulative fluoroquinolone exposure was modeled as a three node spline.
  3. bHigh risk antimicrobials included all cephalosporins, clindamycin, and penicillins.
  4. cExposure at any time t.