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Table 2 Processes of care at the onset of and treatment for the initial CDI hospitalization

From: Risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) hospitalization among hospitalized patients with an initial CDI episode: a retrospective cohort study

Patient characteristics Patients who developed rCDI Patients who did not develop rCDI Hazard ratio
(n = 425) (n = 3775) 95% CI
Laboratory results iCDI onset    
  Low albumin 50 (12) 548 (15) 0.84 (0.63 – 1.13)
  Low WBC 64 (15) 635 (17) 0.99 (0.82 – 1.20)
  High WBC 247 (58) 2027 (54) 1.23 (1.01 – 1.49)
  Low hemoglobin 218 (51) 1985 (53) 0.96 (0.79 – 1.16)
  High creatinine 99 (23) 862 (23) 1.08 (0.86 – 1.35)
Relevant medications present at iCDI onset    
  Any antimicrobial 314 (74) 2729 (72) 1.10 (0.88 – 1.36)
  Low risk antimicrobial(s)a 95 (22) 1058 (28) 0.76 (0.60 – 0.95)
  High risk antimicrobial(s)b 174 (41) 1490 (40) 1.07 (0.88 – 1.29)
  Fluoroquinolone 120 (28) 861 (23) 1.29 (1.05 – 1.60)
  IV vancomycin 130 (31) 1321 (35) 0.86 (0.70 – 1.05)
  Gastric acid suppressor, any 310 (73) 2850 (76) 0.91 (0.73 – 1.12)
  New gastric acid suppressor 54 (13) 255 (7) 1.87 (1.41 – 2.49)
Relevant medications received following iCDI onset    
  Any antibiotic first dose after CDI 278 (65) 1622 (43) 2.47 (2.02 – 3.02)
  Low risk antimicrobial(s) first dose after CDIa 141 (33) 710 (19) 2.09 (1.71 – 2.56)
  High risk antimicrobial(s) first dose after CDIb 150 (35) 714 (19) 2.30 (1.89 – 2.81)
  Fluoroquinolone first dose after CDI 124 (29) 703 (19) 1.69 (1.37 – 2.09)
  IV vancomycin first dose after CDI 115 (27) 337 (12) 2.61 (2.11 – 3.23)
Initial CDI treatment    
  Metronidazole alone 323 (76) 2841 (75) Reference
  Oral vancomycin alone 16 (4) 104 (3) 1.32(0.80 – 2.18)
  Metronidazole and oral vancomycin 86 (20) 829 (22) 0.95 (0.75 – 1.20)
  1. iCDI = initial episode of C. difficile infection, rCDI = recurrent C. difficile infection.
  2. aLow risk antimicrobials included aminoglycosides, betalactamase inhibitors, carbepenems, daptomycin, doxycycline, linezolid, macrolides, penicillinase inhibitors, rifampin, rifaximin, and tigecycline.
  3. bHigh risk antimicrobials included all cephalosporins, clindamycin, and penicillins.