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Table 1 Patient characteristics and treatments at hospital admission involving the initial CDI episode

From: Risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) hospitalization among hospitalized patients with an initial CDI episode: a retrospective cohort study

Patient characteristics Patients who developed rCDI Patients who did not develop rCDI Hazard ratio
(n = 425) (n = 3775) 95% CI
Demographics    
  Age, years (median[range]) 64.8 (18.3 – 98.2) 61.6 (18.0 –102.4) 1.01 (1.01 – 1.02)
  Gender: female 210 (49) 1824 (48) 1.05 (0.87 – 1.27)
Comorbiditiesa    
  Myocardial infarction 40 (9) 328 (9) 1.12 (0.81 – 1.55)
  Congestive heart failure 108 (25) 854 (23) 1.23 (0.99 – 1.53)
  Peripheral vascular disease 34 (8) 269 (7) 1.13 (0.79 – 1.60)
  Cerebrovascular disease 41 (10) 256 (7) 1.51 (1.10 – 2.09)
  Chronic renal failure 21 (5) 190 (5) 0.98 (0.64 – 1.53)
  Dementia 5 (1) 23 (1) 1.83 (0.76 – 4.41)
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 116 (27) 912 (24) 1.18 (0.95 – 1.46)
  Rheumatologic disease 18 (4) 146 (4) 1.11 (0.69 – 1.78)
  Peptic ulcer disease 20 (5) 154 (4) 1.18 (0.75 – 1.85)
  Mild liver disease 17 (4) 201 (5) 0.81 (0.50 – 1.32)
  Moderate to severe liver disease 12 (3) 134 (4) 0.86 (0.48 – 1.53)
  Diabetes 135 (32) 975 (26) 1.32 (1.08 – 1.62)
  Paraplegia or hemiplegia 12 (3) 78 (2) 1.40 (0.79 – 2.45)
  Any malignancy (excluding leukemia/lymphoma) 83 (20) 770 (20) 0.99 (0.78 – 1.25)
  Leukemia or lymphoma 78 (18) 660 (18) 1.05 (0.82 – 1.34)
  Metastatic solid tumor 56 (13) 449 (12) 1.19 (0.90 – 1.58)
  HIV/AIDS 10 (2) 66 (2) 1.30 (0.70 – 2.44)
Charlson composite score    
  0-2 223 (53) 2182 (58) Ref
  3-5 117 (28) 922 (24) 1.27 (1.01 – 1.59)
  > = 6 85(20) 671 (18) 1.32 (1.03 – 1.69)
Case statusb    
  HCFO/HCFA 203 (48) 2332 (62) Ref
  CA or unknown 57 (13) 597 (16) 1.07 (0.79 – 1.43)
  CO/HCFA, indeterminate, or non- BJH HCFA 165 (39) 846 (22) 2.17 (1.76 – 2.66)
 Admitted from another healthcare facility 109 (26) 1019 (27) 0.97 (0.78 – 1.21)
 Number of inpatient admissions in previous 60 days    
  0 200 (47) 2313 (61) Ref
  1 150 (35) 1021 (27) 1.70 (1.37 – 2.10)
  2+ 75 (18) 441 (12) 1.96 (1.50 – 2.55)
Baseline laboratory datac    
  Low albumin at admission 52 (12) 522 (14) 0.94 (0.70 – 1.25)
  Low WBC at admission 44 (10) 420 (11) 0.92 (0.68 – 1.26)
  High WBC at admission 236 (56) 2122 (56) 0.86 (0.66 – 1.12)
  Low hemoglobin at admission 182 (43) 1572 (42) 1.09 (0.90 – 1.32)
  High creatinine at admission 108 (25) 947 (25) 1.04 (0.84 – 1.30)
  Low creatinine clearance 218 (51) 1636 (43) 1.43 (1.18 – 1.73)
  1. rCDI = recurrent C. difficile infection.
  2. aComorbidities diagnosed within previous 1 year (identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes.
  3. bHCFO = health care facility onset; HCFA = healthcare facility-associated; CA = community acquired; CO = community onset. Case she status for 6 patients’ was unknown: 1 among those who developed rCDI and 5 among those who did not.
  4. cThe following threshold values defined “high” and “low” levels: albumin <2.5 g/dL; WBC low <3.8*103/mm3; WBC high >9.8*103/mm3; hemoglobin <10.0 g/dL; creatinine >1.5 ug/dL; creatinine clearance <70 mL/min. WBC = white blood cells.