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Table 3 ESBL-E fecal colonization by healthcare contact in the past three months and antibiotic use in the previous month

From: A prospective observational study of the prevalence and risk factors for colonization by antibiotic resistant bacteria in patients at admission to hospital in Singapore

Sub-group Number of participants Prevalence Odds ratio (95% C.I.) p-value
ESBL-E colonized Not colonized
No healthcare contact or antibiotics 6 95 6.3%  
Primary care, no antibiotics 36 452 8.0% 2.90* (1.84 to 4.57) <0.0001
Primary care and antibiotics 51 221 23.1%
Outpatient, no antibiotics 24 245 9.8% 1.78* (1.05 to 3.02) 0.033
Outpatient and antibiotics 43 247 17.4%
Hospitalization, no antibiotics 10 81 12.3% 2.38* (1.08 to 5.02) 0.032
Hospitalization and antibiotics 25 85 29.4%
  1. *Statistically significant at 5%.